adverb below, usually combd. or contrasted with uddhaṃ “above” and tiriyaṃ “across”, describing the 3 dimensions
uddhaṃ and adho above and below marking zenith & nadir. Thus with uddhaṃ and the 4 bearings; (disā) and intermediate points (anudisā) at SN.i.122; SN.iii.124; AN.iv.167; with uddhaṃ & tiriyaṃ at Snp.150, Snp.537, Snp.1055, Snp.1068. Expld. at Kp-a.248 by heṭṭhā and in detail (dogmatically & speculatively) at Cnd.155. For further ref. see uddhaṃ. The compn. form of adho before vowels is adh˚.

  • -akkhaka beneath the collar-bone Vin.iv.213.
  • -agga with the points downward (of the upper row of teeth Ja.v.156 (+ uddh˚ expld. by uparima-danta C.).
  • -kata turned down, or upside down Ja.i.20;
  • -gata gone by, past. Adv. ˚ṃ since (cp. uddhaṃ adv. later or after (ito māsaṃ adhogataṃ since one month ago)
  • -gala (so read for T. udho˚) down the throat Pv-a.104
  • -mukha head forward, face downward, bent over, upturned Vin.ii.78; MN.i.132, MN.i.234: Vv.16#1 (= heṭṭhā mukha Vv-a.78).
  • -bhāga the lower part (of the body) MN.i.473; Dhp-a.i.148.
  • -virecana action of a purgative (opp. uddha˚ of an emetic) DN.i.12; DN-a.i.98 (= adho dosānaṃ nīharaṇaṃ) Dhs-a.404.
  • -sākhaṃ (+ uddhamūlaṃ) branches down (roots up, i.e. uprooted) Dhp-a.i.75.
  • -sira (adj.) head downward Ja.iv.194.
  • -siraṃ (adv.) with bowed head (cp. avaṃsiraṃ) (= siraṃ adhokatvā heṭṭhāmukho C.).
  • -sīsa (adj.) head first, headlong Ja.i.233; Ja.v.472 (˚ka).

Vedic adhaḥ; compar. adharaḥ = Lat. inferus, Goth. undar, E. under, Ind. *n̊dher-; superl. adhamaḥ Lat. infimus