Well-defined directional prefix, meaning “away from, off” Usually as base-prefix (except with ā), & very seldom in compn. with other modifying prefixes (like sam, abhi etc.).
- apa = Vedic apa (Idg. *apo): apeti to go away = Gr. α ̓́πειμι, Lat. abeo, Goth. afiddja; apeta gone away rid; ˚kaḍḍhati to draw away, remove; ˚kamati walk away ˚gacchati go away; ˚nidhāti put away (= ἀποτιχημι abdo); ˚nudati push away; ˚neti lead away; ˚vattati turn away (= āverto); ˚sakkati step aside; ˚harati take away.
- apa = Vedic ava (Idg. *aue; see ava for details) There exists a widespread confusion between the two preps. apa & ava, favoured both by semantic (apa = away, ava = down, cp. E. off) & phonetic affinity (p softened to b, esp. in BB Mss., & then to v, as b → v is frequent, e.g. bya˚ → vya˚ etc.). Thus we find in Pāli apa where Vedic and later literary Sk. have ava in the foll. instances: apakanti, ˚kassati, ˚kirati, ˚gata, ˚cāra ˚jhāyati, ˚thaṭa, ˚dāna, ˚dhāreti, ˚nata, ˚nāmeti, ˚nīta ˚lekhana, ˚loketi, ˚vadati.
Vedic apa; Idg. *apo = Gr. ἀπό, Av. apa, Lat. ab from *ap (cp. aperio); Goth. af, Ger. ab, Ags. E. of. A compar. form fr. apa is apara “further away”