indeclinable both prep. & conj., orig meaning “close by”, then as prep. “towards, to, on to on” and as adv. “later, and, moreover”.

  1. (prep. pref.)

    1. prep. c. loc.: api ratte later on in the night (q.v.)-
    2. pref.: apidhāna putting on to; apiḷahati bind on to, apihita (= Gr. ἐπιχετός, epithet) put on to (q.v.).
  2. (conj. & part.).

    1. in affirmative sentences meaning primarily “moreover, further, and then, even”

      1. (single) prothetic: api dibbesu kāmesu even in heavenly joys Dhp.187; ko disvā na pasīdeyya api kaṇhâbhijātiko even an unfortunate-born Snp.563 api yojanāni gacchāma, even for leagues we go Pv.iv.10#7 (= anekāni yojanāni pi g. Pv-a.270. Epithetic (more freq. in the form pi): muhuttam api even a little while Dhp.106, Dhp.107 aham api daṭṭhukāmo I also wish to see Snp.685. Out of prothetic use (= even = even if) develops the conditional meaning of “if”, as in api sakkuṇemu (and then we may = if we may) Ja.v.24 (c. = api nāma sakkuṇeyyāma see further under β app’eva nāma)
        api-api in correlation corresponds to Lat. et-et Sk ca-ca, meaning both… and, and… as well as, & is esp. freq. in combn. app’ ekacce… app’ ekacce (and) some… and others i.e. some… others [not with Kern


        s. v. to appa! ] e.g. at DN.i.118; Thig.216; Vv-a.208, etc. -app’ ekadā “morever once” = sometimes Vin.iv.178; SN.i.162; SN.iv.111; Ja.i.67; Dhp-a.iii.303, etc

      2. (in combination with other emphatic or executive particles) [api ca](/define/api ca) further, and also moreover DN.i.96; Mil.25, Mil.47. -[api ca kho](/define/api ca kho) moreover and yet, still, all the same Iti.89 (+ pana variant reading); Mil.20, Mil.239. -api ca kho pana all the same, never mind nevertheless Ja.i.253. -api ssu so much so Vin.ii.76 -app’ eva nāma (with pot.) (either) surely, indeed, yes I reckon, (or) I presume, it is likely that, perhaps Vin.i.16 (surely); Vin.ii.85 (id.); cp. pi DN.i.205 (sve pi upasaṃkameyyāma tomorrow I shall surely come along), DN.i.226 (siyā thus shall it be); MN.i.460 = Iti.89 (moreover, indeed) Ja.i.168 (surely) Vin.ii.262 (perhaps) Ja.v.421 (id., piyavācaṃ labheyyāma)

    2. in interrog
      ■ dubit. sentences as part. of interrog. (w. indic. or pot.) corresponding to Lat. nonne, i e. awaiting an affirmative answer (“not, not then”): api Yasaṃ kulaputtaṃ passeyya do you not see… Vin.i.16; api samaṇa balivadde addasā have you not then seen… SN.i.115; api kiñci labhāmase shall we then not get anything? Ja.iii.26; api me pitaraṃ passatha do you then not see my father? Pv-a.38
      ■ Also combd. with other interr. part. e.g. [api nu](/define/api nu) Ja.ii.415.

Sk. api & pi; Idg. *epi *pi *opi; cp. Gr. ε ̓́πι on to, ο ̓́πι (ο ̓́πιχεν behind, ὀπίσσα back = close at one’s heels); Lat. ob. in certain functions; Goth. iftuma. The assimil. form before vowels is app˚; (= Sk. apy˚) See further details under pi.