indeclinable adv. and prep of direction (forward motion), in primary meaning “on and further”, then “up to and beyond”.

I. in abstr position

adverbially (only as ttg.): in excess, extremely very (cp. ii.3) (ati uggata C. = accuggata T.), (ati ahitaṃ C. = accāhitaṃ T.).

II. as prefix, meaning.

  1. on to, up to, towards until; as far as: accanta up to the end; aticchati to go further, pass on; atipāta “falling on to”; attack slaying atimāpeti to put damage on to, i.e. to destroy.

  2. over beyond, past, by, trans-; with verbs:

    1. trs. atikkamati to pass beyond, surpass; atimaññati to put one’s “manas over, to despise; atirocati to surpass in splendour.
    2. intr. atikkanta passed by; atikkama traversing; aticca transgressing; atīta past, gone beyond
      ■ Also with verbal derivations: accaya lapse, also sin, transgression (“going over”); atireka remainder, left over; atisaya overflow abundance; atisāra stepping over, sin.
  3. exceedingly, in a high or excessive degree either very (much or too (much); in nominal compn. (a), rarely also in verbal compn. see (b)

    1. with nouns & adj.: ˚āsanna too near; ˚uttama the very highest; ˚udaka too much water; ˚khippa too soon; ˚dāna excessive almsgiving ˚dāruṇa very cruel; ˚dīgha extremely long; ˚dūra too near deva a super-god ˚pago too early; ˚bālha too much; ˚bhāra a too heavy load; ˚manāpa very lovely; ˚manohara very charming; ˚mahant too great; ˚vikāla very inconvenient ˚vela a very long time; ˚sambādha too tight, etc. etc. (b.) with verb: atibhuñjati to eat excessively
    2. with verb: atibhuñjati to eat excessively.


A peculiar use of ati is its function in reduplication-compounds, expressing “and, adding further, and so on, even more, etc.” like that of the other comparing or contrasting prefixes a (ā), anu, ava, paṭi, vi (e.g. khaṇḍâkhaṇḍa seṭṭhânuseṭṭhi, chiddâvacchidda, angapaccanga cuṇṇavicuṇṇa). In this function it is however restricted to comparatively few expressions and has not by far the wide range of ā (q.v.), the only phrases being the foll. viz cakkāticakkaṃ mañcātimañcaṃ bandhati to heap carts upon carts, couches upon couches (in order to see a procession) Vin.iv.360 (Bdhgh); Ja.ii.331; Ja.iv.81; Dhp-a.iv.61 -devātideva god upon god, god and more than a god (see atideva); mānātimāna all kinds of conceit; vaṅkātivaṅka crooked all over Ja.i.160


Semantically ati is closely related to abhi, so that in consequence of dialectical variation we frequently find ati in Pāli, where the corresp. expression in later Sk. shows abhi. See e.g. the foll. cases for comparison: accuṇha ati-jāta, ˚pīḷita ˚brūheti, ˚vassati, ˚vāyati, ˚veṭheti.

Note The contracted (assimilation-) form of ati before vowels is acc- (q.v.). See also for adv. use atiriva, ativiya atīva.

sk. ati = Gr. ε ̓́τι moreover, yet, and; Lat. et and, Goth. ip; also connected with Gr. ατάρ but, Lat at but (= over, outside) Goth. appan