atta (the latter is the form used in compn.)

I. Inflection

  1. of attan- (n. stem); the foll. cases are the most freq:
    ■ acc. attānaṃ DN.i.13, DN.i.185; SN.i.24; Snp.132 Snp.451
    ■ gen. dat. attano Snp.334, Snp.592 etc., also as abl AN.iii.337 (attano ca parato ca as regards himself and others)
    ■ instr. abl. attanā SN.i.24; Snp.132, Snp.451; Dhp-a.ii.75; Pv-a.15, Pv-a.214 etc. On use of attanā see below iii.1 C
    ■ loc. attani SN.v.177; AN.i.149 (attanī metri causa); AN.ii.52 (anattani); AN.iii.181; MN.i.138; Snp.666, Snp.756 Snp.784; Vb.376 (an˚)
  2. of atta- (a-stem) we find the foll. cases:
    ■ acc. attaṃ Dhp.379
    ■ instr. attena SN.iv.54
    ■ abl. attato SN.i.188; Pts.i.143; Pts.ii.48; Vb.336.

II. Meanings

  1. The soul as postulated in the animistic theories held in N India in the 6th and 7th cent. B.C. It is described in the Upanishads as a small creature, in shape like a man, dwelling in ordinary times in the heart. It escapes from the body in sleep or trance; when it returns to the body life and motion reappear. It escapes from the body at death, then continues to carry on an everlasting life of its own. For numerous other details see Rh. D. Theory of Soul in the Upanishads J.R.A.S. 1899. Bt. India 251–⁠255. Buddhism repudiated all such theories, thus differing from other religions. Sixteen such theories about the soul DN.i.31. Seven other theories DN.i.34. Three others DN.i.186–DN.i.186. A ʻsoul’ according to general belief was some thing permanent, unchangeable, not affected by sorrow SN.iv.54 = Kv.67; Vin.i.14; MN.i.138 See also MN.i.233; MN.iii.265, MN.iii.271; SN.ii.17, SN.ii.109; SN.iii.135; AN.i.284; AN.ii.164, AN.ii.171; AN.v.188; SN.iv.400. Cp. ātuman, tuma puggala, jīva, satta, pāṇa and nāma-rūpa.
  2. Oneself, himself, yourself. Nom. attā, very rare. SN.i.71, SN.i.169; SN.iii.120; AN.i.57, AN.i.149 (you yourself know whether that is true or false. Cp. Manu viii.84. Here attā comes very near to the European idea of conscience. But conscience as a unity or entity is not accepted by Buddhism Snp.284; Dhp.166, Dhp.380; Mil.54 (the image, outward appearance, of oneself). Acc. attānaṃ SN.i.44 (would not give for himself, as a slave) AN.i.89; Snp.709. Acc. attaṃ Dhp.379. Abl. attato as oneself SN.i.188; Pts.i.143; Pts.ii.48 Vb.336. Loc. attani AN.i.149; AN.iii.181; Snp.666, Snp.784 Instr. attanā SN.i.57 = Dhp.66; SN.i.75; SN.ii.68; AN.i.53 AN.iii.211; AN.iv.405; Dhp.165. On one’s own account, spontaneously SN.iv.307; SN.v.354; AN.i.297; AN.ii.99, AN.ii.218; AN.iii.81; Ja.i.156; Pv-a.15, Pv-a.20. In composition with numerals attadutiya himself and one other DN.ii.147; ˚catuttha with himself as fourth MN.i.393; AN.iii.36; ˚pañcama Dpvs.viii.2; ˚sattama Ja.i.233; ˚aṭṭhama Vv-a.149 (as atta-naṭṭhama Vv.34#13), & ˚aṭṭhamaka Mil.291.

III. anattā

(n. and predicative adj.) not a soul, without a soul. Most freq. in combn. with dukkha & anicca-

  1. as noun: SN.iii.141 (˚anupassin); SN.iv.49; SN.v.345 (˚saññin); AN.ii.52 = Pts.ii.80 (anattani anattā; opp. to anattani attā the opinion of the micchādiṭṭhigatā sattā); Dhp.279; Pts.ii.37, Pts.ii.45 sq. (˚anupassanā), Pts.ii.106 (yaṃ aniccañ ca dukkhañ ca taṃ anattā); Dhp-a.iii.406 (˚lakkhaṇa)
  2. as adj (pred.): SN.iv.152 sq.; SN.iv.166; SN.iv.130 sq., SN.iv.148 sq. Vin.i.13 = SN.iii.66 = Cnd.680 Q 1; SN.iii.20 sq.; SN.iii.178 sq., SN.iii.196 sq.; sabbe dhammā anattā Vin.v.86; SN.iii.133 SN.iv.28, SN.iv.401.
  • -attha one’s own profit or interest Snp.75; Cnd.23; Ja.iv.56, Ja.iv.96; otherwise as atta-d-attha, e.g. Snp.284.
  • -atthiya looking after one’s own needs Thag.1097.
  • -ādhipaka master of oneself, self-mastered AN.i.150.
  • -adhipateyya selfdependence self-reliance, independence AN.i.147.
  • -ādhīna independent DN.i.72.
  • -ānudiṭṭhi speculation about souls SN.iii.185; SN.iv.148; AN.iii.447; Snp.1119; Pts.i.143; Vb.368; Mil.146.
  • -ānuyogin one who concentrates his attention on himself Dhp.209; Dhp-a.iii.275.
  • -ānuvāda blaming oneself AN.ii.121; Vb.376.
  • -uññā self-humiliation Vb.353 (+ att-avaññā).
  • -uddesa relation to oneself Vin.iii.149 (= attano atthāya), also ˚ika ibid. Vin.iii.144.
  • -kata self-made SN.i.134 (opp. para˚).
  • -kāma love of self AN.ii.21; adj. a lover of “soul”, one who cares for his own soul SN.i.75.
  • -kāra individual self, fixed individuality oneself (cp. ahaṃkāra) DN.i.53 (opp. para˚); AN.iii.337 (id.) DN-a.i.160; as nt. at Ja.v.401 in the sense of service (self-doing“, slavery) (attakārāni karonti bhattusu).
  • -kilamatha self-mortification DN.iii.113; SN.iv.330; SN.v.421; MN.iii.230.
  • -garahin self-censuring Snp.778.
  • -gutta selfguarded Dhp.379.
  • -gutti watchfulness as regards one’s self, self-care AN.ii.72.
  • -ghañña self-destruction Dhp.164
  • -ja proceeding from oneself Dhp.161 (pāpa).
  • -ñū knowing oneself AN.iv.113, cp. DN.iii.252.
  • -(n)tapa self-mortifying self-vexing DN.iii.232 = AN.ii.205 (opp. paran˚); MN.i.341 MN.i.411; MN.ii.159; Pp.55, Pp.56.
  • -daṇḍa see atta1.
  • -danta selfrestrained self-controlled Dhp.104, Dhp.322.
  • -diṭṭhi speculation concerning the nature of the soul Mnd.107; Snp-a.523 Snp-a.527.
  • -dīpa relying on oneself, independent, founded on oneself (+ attasaraṇa, opp. añña˚) DN.ii.100 = DN.iii.42; SN.v.154; Snp.501 (= attano guṇe eva attano dīpaṃ katvā Snp-a.416).
  • -paccakkha only in instr. ˚ena by or with his own presence, i.e. himself Ja.v.119.
  • -paccakkhika eye-witness Ja.v.119.
  • -paccatthika hostile to oneself Vin.ii.94, Vin.ii.96.
  • -paṭilābha acquisition of a personality DN.i.195 (tayo: oḷārika, manomaya, arūpa).
  • -paritāpana self-chastisement, mortification DN.iii.232 = AN.ii.205; MN.i.341; Pv-a.18, Pv-a.30.
  • -parittā charm (protection) for oneself Vin.ii.110.
  • -paribhava disrespect for one’s own person Vb.353.
  • -bhāva one’s own nature 1 person, personality individuality, living creature; form, appearance [cp. Dhs trsl. LXXI and BSk. ātmabhāva body Divy.70, Divy.73 (˚pratilambha), Divy.230; Sp. Avs.i.162 (pratilambha), Avs.i.167 171] Vin.ii.238 (living beings, forms); SN.v.442 (bodily appearance); AN.i.279 (oḷārika a substantial creature), AN.ii.17 (creature); Dhp-a.ii.64, Dhp-a.ii.69 (appearance); Snp-a.132 (personality) 2 life, rebirth AN.i.134 sq.; AN.iii.412; Dhp-a.ii.68; Pv-a.8, Pv-a.15, Pv-a.166 (atītā ˚ā former lives). ˚ṃ pavatteti to lead a life, to live Pv-a.29, Pv-a.181. Thus in cpd. paṭilābha assumption of an existence, becoming reborn as an individual Vin.ii.185; Vin.iii.105; DN.iii.231; MN.iii.46; SN.ii.255, SN.ii.272, SN.ii.283; SN.iii.144; AN.ii.159, AN.ii.188 AN.iii.122 sq 3 character, quality of heart Snp.388 (citta Snp-a.374); Ja.i.61.
  • -rūpa “of the form of self” self-like only in instr. ˚ena as adv. by oneself, on one’s own account, for the sake of oneself SN.iv.97; AN.ii.120
  • -vadha self-destruction SN.ii.241; AN.ii.73.
  • -vāda theory of (a persistent) soul DN.iii.230; MN.i.66; DN.ii.58; SN.ii.3 SN.ii.245 sq.; SN.iii.103, SN.iii.165, SN.iii.203; SN.iv.1 sq., SN.iv.43 sq., SN.iv.153 sq. Pts.i.156 sq.; Vb.136, Vb.375. For var. points of an “attavādic” doctrine see Index to Saṃyutta Nikāya.
  • -vyābādha personal harm or distress self-suffering, one’s own disaster (opp. para˚) MN.i.369; SN.iv.339 = AN.i.157; AN.ii.179.
  • -vetana supporting oneself, earning one’s own living Snp.24.
  • -sañcetanā self-perception, self-consciousness (opp. para˚) DN.iii.231; AN.ii.159.
  • -sambhava originating from one’s self SN.i.70; AN.iv.312; Dhp.161 (pāpa) Thag.260.
  • -sambhūta arisen from oneself Snp.272
  • -sammāpaṇidhi thorough pursuit or development of one’s personality AN.ii.32; Snp.260, cp. Kp-a.132.
  • -saraṇa see ˚dipa.
  • -sukha happiness of oneself, self-success Dpvs.i.66, cp. Dpvs.ii.11.
  • -hita personal welfare one’s own good (opp. para˚) DN.iii.233; AN.ii.95 sq.
  • -hetu for one’s own sake, out of self-consideration Snp.122; Dhp.328.

Vedic ātman, not to Gr. αἀνεμος = Lat. animus, but to Gr. ἀτμός steam, Ohg. ātum breath, Ags. aepm