I. Relation between ava & o

Phonetically the difference between ava & o is this, that; ava is the older form, whereas o represents a later development. Historically the case is often reversed-that is, the form in o was in use first & the form in ava was built up, sometimes quite independently, long afterwards.; Okaḍḍhati okappati, okappanā, okassati, okāra, okantati, okkamati ogacchati, odāta and others may be used as examples The difference in many cases has given rise to a differentiation of meaning, like E. ripe: rife, quash: squash Ger. Knabe: Knappe etc. (see below B 2)

  1. The old Pāli form of the prefix is o. In same cases however a Vedic form in ava has been preserved by virtue of its archaic character. In words forming the 2nd part of a cpd. we have ava, while the absolute form of the same word has o. See e.g. avakāsa (-˚) → okāsa (˚-); avacara → ocaraka; avatata; avadāta; avabhāsa; avasāna
  2. The proportion in the words before us (early and later is that o alone is found in 65% of all cases, ava alone in 24%, and ava as well as o in 11%. The proportion of forms in ava increases as the books or passages become later. Restricted to the older literature (the 4 Nikāyas) are the foll. forms with o: okiri, okkanti, okkamati okkhipati, ogacchati, ossajati
    1. The Pāli form (o˚ shows a differentiation in meaning against the later Sanskrit forms (ava˚;). See the foll.:
      avakappanā harnessing: okappanā confidence;
      avakkanti (not Sk.): okkanti appearance;
      avakkhitta thrown down: okkhitta subdued;
      avacara sphere of motion: ocaraka spy;
      avatiṇṇa descended: otiṇṇa affected with love;
      avaharati to move down, put off: oharati to steal.
    2. In certain secondary verb-formations, arisen on Pāli grounds, the form o˚ is used almost exclusively pointing thus to a clearly marked dialectical development of Pali. Among these formations are Diminutives in ˚ka usually; the Gerund & the; Infinitive usually; the Causatives throughout.

II. Ava as prefix


■ (Rest:) lower, low (opp ut˚, see e.g. uccâvaca high & low, and below; iii. c) expld. as heṭṭhā (Dhp-a.iv.54 under avaṃ) or adho (ibid 153; Snp-a.290)
■ (Motion:) down, downward, away (down), off; e.g. avasūra sun-down; adv. avaṃ (q.v. opp. uddhaṃ)

  1. lit. away from, off: ava-kantati to cut off; ˚gaṇa away from the crowd; ˚chindati cut off ˚yīyati fall off; ˚bhāsati shine out, effulge; ˚muñcati take off; ˚siṭṭha left over
    down, out, over: ˚kirati pour down or out over; ˚khitta thrown down; ˚gacchati go down; ˚gāheti dip down; ˚tarati descend; ˚patita fallen down; ˚sajjati emit; ˚siñcati pour out over; ˚sīdati sink down
  2. fig. down in connection with verbs of emotion (cp. Lat. de-in despico to despise, lit. look down on), see ava-jānāti, ˚bhūta, ˚mānita, ˚vajja, ˚hasati away from, i.e. the opposite of, as equivalent to a negation and often taking the place of the neg. prefix a (an˚), e.g. in avajaya (= ajaya), ˚jāta, ˚mangala (= a˚) ˚pakkhin, ˚patta.

Affinities of ava

  1. apa. There exists an exceedingly frequent interchange of forms with apa˚ and ava˚ the historical relation of which has not yet been thoroughly investigated. For a comparison of the two the BSk. forms are indispensable, and often afford a clue as to the nature of the word in question. See on this apa 2 and cp. the foll. words under ava: avakata, ˚karoti, ˚khalita, ˚anga ottappa, avattha, ˚nīta, ˚dāna, ˚pivati, ˚rundhati, ˚lekhati ˚vadati, ˚varaka, ˚sakkati, avassaya, avasseti, ˚hita, avāpurīyati avekkhati
  2. abhi. The similarity between abhi & ava is seen from a comparison of meaning abhi; ii. b and ava ii. a. The two prefixes are practically synonymous in the foll. words: ˚kankhati, ˚kamati, ˚kiṇṇa ˚khipati, ˚maddati, ˚rata, ˚lambati, ˚lekheti, ˚lepana ˚siñcati
  3. The contrary of ava is ut (cp. above ii.2) Among the freq. contrast-pairs showing the two, like E up & down, are the foll. ukkaṃsâvakaṃsa, uggaman-oggamana, uccâvaca, ullangheti-olangheti, ullittâvalitta; ogilituṃuggilituṃ onaman-unnamana. Two other combns. founded on the same principle (of intensifying contrast) are chiddâvacchidda and ava˚ in contrast with vi˚ in olambavilamba olugga-vilugga.

P. ava = Vedic ava & occasionally o Av. ava; Lat. au-(aufero = avabharati, aufugio etc.) Obg. u-; Oir. ō, ua. See further relations in Walde, Lat Wtb. under au