- strength power, force DN.ii.73; AN.i.244; Thag.188; Dhp.109 (one of the 4 blessings, viz. āyu, vaṇṇa, sukha, bala; cp Dhp-a.ii.239); Pv.i.5#12 (= kāya-bala Pv-a.30); Pv.i.7#6 Vv-a.4 (iddhi˚); Pv-a.71 (id.), Pv-a.82 (kamma˚)
■ Of cases used as adv. balasā (instr.) is mentioned by Trenckner at Mil.430 (notes), cp. Prk. balasā (Pischel, Gr. § 364) yathā balaṃ according to one’s power, i.e. as much as possible Pv-a.1, Pv-a.54. The compound form of bala in conn with kṛ; is balī˚; e.g. dubbalīkaraṇa making weak MN.iii.4; Pp.59, Pp.68; -karaṇin id. DN.iii.183
■ adj. bala strong Ja.v.268, abala weak Snp.770, Snp.1120, dubbala id SN.i.222; Ja.ii.154; Mnd.12; Pv-a.55; compar. ˚tara MN.i.244, nt. n. abalaṃ weakness SN.i.222.
- an army military force Mhvs.25, Mhvs.57; Snp-a.357. See compounds below.
Eight balāni or strong points are 1 of young children (ruṇṇa-balaṃ). 2 of womanhood (kodha˚) 3 of robbers (āvudha˚). 4 of kings (issariya˚) 5 of fools (ujjhatti˚). 6 of wise men (nijjhatti˚) 7 of the deeply learned (paṭisankhāna˚). 8 of samaṇas & brāhmaṇas (khanti˚) AN.iv.223 (where used as adj. -˚ strong in…); cp. Snp.212, Snp.623
■ Five balāni of women are: rūpabalaṃ, bhoga˚, ñāti˚, putta˚, sīla˚ SN.iv.246–SN.iv.248.
■ The five-fold force (balaṃ pañca-vidhaṃ of a king Ja.v.120, Ja.v.121 consists of bāhābalaṃ strength of arms, bhoga˚ of wealth, amacca˚ of counsellors, abhijacca˚ of high birth, paññā˚ the force of wisdom.
■ In the religious sense five balāni or powers are commonly enumerated: saddhābalaṃ, viriya˚, sati˚, samādhi˚, paññā˚ AN.iii.12; DN.ii.120; MN.ii.12, MN.iii.296; SN.iii.96, SN.iii.153 SN.iv.366, SN.v.219, SN.v.249; Pts.ii.56, Pts.ii.86, Pts.ii.166, Pts.ii.174, Pts.ii.223; Pts.ii.84 Pts.ii.133, Pts.ii.168 etc. They correspond to the 5 indriyāni and are developed with them. SN.v.219, SN.v.220; Ne.31; they are cultivated to destroy the five uddhambhāgiyāni saṃyojanāni SN.v.251. They are freq. referred to in instructions of the Buddha about the constituents of the “Dhamma,” culminating in the eightfold Path, viz cattāro satipaṭṭhānā, samappadhānā, cattāro iddhipādā pañcindriyani, p. balāni, sattabojjhangāni, ariyo aṭṭhangiko maggo e.g. SN.iii.96; Pts.ii.56; Mnd.13 = Mnd.360 = Cnd.420; Cnd. s.v. satipaṭṭhāna; and passim. [Cp BSk. catvāra ṛddhipādāḥ pañc’ endriyāni p. balāni sapta bodhyangāni etc. Divy.208.]
■ Two balāni are specially mentioned AN.i.52 (paṭisankhānabalaṃ and bhāvanā˚), also DN.iii.213, followed here by the other “pair” satibalaṃ and samādhi˚.
■ There are four balāni of the ariyasāvaka, by which he overcomes the five fears (pañca bhayāni q.v.); the four are paññābalaṃ viriya˚, anavajja˚ saṅgāha˚; AN.iv.363 sq., as given at AN.ii.141, also the foll. 3 groups of cattāri balāni: 1 saddhābalaṃ, viriya˚, sati˚, samādhi˚; cp. DN.iii.229 2 sati˚ samādhi, anavajja˚, sangāha˚. 3 paṭisankhāna˚ bhāvanā˚, anavajja˚; sangāha˚
■ For 4 balāni see also DN.iii.229 note, and for paṭisankhānabala (power of computation) see Dhs. trsl. 1353. The ten balāni of the Tathāgata consist of his perfect comprehension in ten fields of knowledge AN.v.32 sq. MN.i.69; Cnd.466; Mil.105, Mil.285; Vb-a.397
■ In a similar setting 10 powers are given as consisting in the knowledge of the Paṭiccasamuppāda at SN.ii.27, SN.ii.28. The balāni of the sāvaka are distinct from those of the Tathāgata: Kv.228 sq
■ There are seven balāni DN.iii.253, and seven khīṇāsava-balāni DN.iii.283 i.e. saddhābalaṃ, viriya˚, sati˚, samādhi˚, paññā˚, hiri˚; and ottappa˚; The same group is repeated in the Abhidhamma; Dhs.58, Dhs.95, Dhs.102; Dhs-a.126. The Pts. also enumerates seven khīṇāsavabalāni Pts.i.35; and sixty-eight balāni Pts.ii.168 sq.
-agga front of an army, troops in array DN.i.6; Vin.iv.107, cp. DN-a.i.85.
-ānīka (adj.) with strong array Snp.623; Dhp.399 (cp. Dhp-a.iv.164).
-kāya a body of troops, an army cp. Fick, Sociale Gliederung p. 52 note (also in BSk. e.g. Divy.63, Divy.315) AN.i.109; AN.iv.107, AN.iv.110; SN.i.58; Ja.i.437 (˚ṃ saṃharati to draw up troops); Ja.ii.76, Ja.iii.319; Ja.v.124; Ja.vi.224, Ja.vi.451; Dhp-a.i.393; Pp-a 249
-koṭṭhaka fortress, camp Ja.i.179; Mhvs.25, Mhvs.29.
-(k)kāra application of force, violence Ja.i.476; Ja.ii.421; Ja.iii.447 instr. ˚ena by force Pv-a.68, Pv-a.113.
-gumba a serried troop Ja.ii.406.
-cakka wheel of power, of sovereignty Dpvs.vi.2.
-ṭṭha a military official, palace guard, royal messenger Mil.234, Mil.241, Mil.264, Mil.314; Mhvs.34, Mhvs.17
-da strength-giving SN.i.32 Snp.297
-dāyin identical AN.ii.64
-deva “God of strength” name of the elder brother of Kaṇha Ja.iv.82 Nd1.89 Nd1.92 (Vāsudeva +); Vism.233 (id)
-(p)patta grown-strong Dhs-a.118 (variant reading phala˚) -vāhana troops, an army Ja.ii.319 Ja.iv.170 Ja.iv.433 Ja.vi.391, Ja.vi.458
-vīra a hero in strength Vv.531 cp. Vv-a.231
-sata for palāsata ‣ (cp.
Journal of the Pali Text Society
1908 108 note)
Vedic bala, most likely to Lat. de-bilis “without strength” (cp. E. debility, P. dubbala), and Gr. βέλτιστος (superl.) = Sk. baliṣṭha the strongest. The Dhātupāṭha (273) defines b. with pāṇane. At Dhs-a.124 bala is understood as “na kampati”
a species of carrion crow Ja.v.268; also in cpd. bal’aṅkapāda having crow’s feet, i.e. spreading feet (perhaps for balāka˚?) Ja.vi.548 (C. explains by pattharita-pāda read patthārita˚).
cp. *Sk. bala: Halāyudha 5, 23; & P. balākā