grown, become; born, produced; nature as the result of becoming. The (exegetical) definition by Bdhgh of the word bhūta is interesting. He (at MN-a.i.31) distinguishes the foll. 7 meanings of the term:

  1. animate Nature as principle or the vital aggregates (the 5 Khandhas), with ref. MN.i.260;
  2. ghosts (amanussā) Snp.222;
  3. inanimate Nature as principle, or the Elements (the 4 dhātus SN.iii.101 (mahābhūtā);
  4. all that exists, physical existence in general (vijjamānaṃ) Vin.iv.25 (bhūtaṃ)
  5. what we should call a simple predicative use, is exemplified by a typical dogmatic example, viz. “kālaghaso bhūto,” where bhūta is given as meaning khīṇāsava (Arahant) Ja.ii.260;
  6. all beings or specified existence, animal kingdom (sattā) DN.ii.157;
  7. the vegetable kingdom, plants, vegetation (rukkh’ ādayo Vin.iv.34 (as bhūta-gāma)


  1. bhūtā bhūtāni; (pl.) beings, living beings, animate Nature Snp.35 (explained at Cnd.479 as 2 kinds, viz. tasā & thāvarā movable & immovable; SN.ii.47 (K.S. ii.36) mind and body as come-to-be; Dhp.131 (bhūtāni), Dhp.405; MN.i.2 sq (paṭhavī, āpo etc., bhūtā, devā, Pajāpatī etc.), MN.i.4; MN-a.i.32. The pl. nt. bhūtāni is used as pl. to meaning 2, viz. inanimate Nature, elements, usually enumerated under term mahā- bhūtāni.
  2. (nt.) nature, creation world MN.i.2 (bhūte bhūtato sañjānāti recognises the beings from nature, i.e. from the fact of being nature) Dhs-a.312 (˚pasāda-lakkhaṇa, see Expos. 409). See compounds -gāma, ˚pubba (?).
  3. (nt. adj.) that which is i.e. natural, genuine, true; nt. truth; neg. abhūta falsehood, lie Snp.397; Pv-a.34. See compounds ˚bhāva ˚vacana, ˚vāda.
  4. a supernatural being, ghost demon, Yakkha; pl. bhūtā guardian genii (of a city Ja.iv.245. See compounds ˚vijja, ˚vejja.
  5. (-˚) pp. in predicative use (cp. on this meaning Bdhgh’s meaning No. 5, above):
    1. what has been or happened; viz mātu-bhūtā having been his mother Pv-a.78; abhūtapubbaṃ bhūtaṃ what has never happened before happened (now) DN-a.i.43 (in expln of abbhuta)
    2. having become such & such, being like, acting as, being quâsi (as it were), consisting of, e.g. andha˚ blind, as it were; aru˚ consisting of wounds Dhp-a.iii.109; udapāna˚ being a well, a well so to speak Pv-a.78; opāna˚ acting as a spring AN.iv.185; hetu as reason, being the reason Pv-a.58; cp. cakkhu˚ having become an eye of wisdom. Sometimes bhūta in this use hardly needs to be translated at all.

-kāya body of truth Dhp-a.i.11
■ gāma vegetation, as trees, plants, grass, etc. Under bhūtagāma Bdhgh understands the 5 bīja-jātāni (5 groups of plants springing from a germinative power: see bīja), viz mūla-bījaṃ, khandha˚, phala˚, agga˚, bīja˚. Thus in C. on Vin.iv.34 (the so-called bhūtagāma-sikkhāpada quoted at Dhp-a.iii.302 & Snp-a.3); cp. MN.iii.34; Ja.v.46; Mil.3, Mil.244. -gāha possession by a demon Mil.168 (cp. Divy.235). -ṭṭhāna place of a ghost Kp-a.170 -pati (a) lord of beings Ja.v.113 (of inda); (id.) Vv.64#1 (id.). (b) lord of ghosts, or Yakkhas (of Kuvera). -pubba (a) as adj. (-˚) having formerly been so & so, as mātā bhūtapubbo satto, pitā etc., in untraced quotation at Vism.305; also at Snp-a.359 (Bhagavā kuṇāla-rājā bhūtapubbo) (b) as adv (bhūtapubbaṃ) meaning: before all happening, before creation, at a very remote stage of the world, in old times, formerly Vin.ii.201; DN.i.92; DN.ii.167, DN.ii.285, DN.ii.337; MN.i.253; MN.iii.176; SN.i.216, SN.i.222, SN.i.227; SN.iv.201; SN.v.447; AN.iv.136 = Vism.237; AN.iv.432; Ja.i.394; Dhp-a.i.56 -bhavya past and future DN.i.18. -bhāva truthful character, neg. a˚ Pv-a.14. -vacana statement of reality or of the truth Snp-a.336. -vādin truthful speaking the truth MN.i.180; DN.iii.175; Pp.58; untruthful Dhp.306; Ja.ii.416. -vikāra a natural blemish fault of growth, deformity Snp-a.189 (opp. nibbikāra) -vijjā knowledge of demons, exorcism DN.i.9; Dhp.i.93 cp. Dial. i.17). -vejja a healer of harm caused by demons, an exorcist Vin.iv.84; Ja.ii.215; Ja.iii.511; Mil.23.

pp. of bhavati, Vedic etc. bhūta