1. external, outside (opp. abbhantara inside) outer, foreign DN.ii.75; AN.iv.16; Dhp.394 (fig. in meaning of 2); Ja.i.125 (antara˚ inside & outside); Ja.i.337 (out of office, out of favour, of ministers); Ja.vi.384 (bāhiraṃ karoti to turn out, turn inside out); Pv.iv.1#1 (nagarassa b.); Mil.281 (˚abbhantara dhana); Vv-a.68 (˚kittibhāva fact of becoming known outside)
    santara˚ (adj.) [= sa-antara] including the inward & outward parts DN.i.74; AN.iii.25; Thag.172; Ja.i.125.
  2. external to the individual, objective (opp. ajjhattika subjective MN.iii.274 (cha āyatanā); Ja.iv.402 (˚vatthuṃ ayācitvā ajjhattikassa nāmaṃ gaṇhāti); Dhs.674 (cp. trsl. p. 207) Vb.13; Mil.215; Vism.450.
  3. heretical, outsider in religious sense, non-Buddhist, freq. applied to the Brahmanic religion & their practice (samaya) Kv.251 (+ puthujjana-pakkhe ṭhita); Dhp-a.iii.378 (= mana i.e. Bhagavato sāsanato bahiddhā)
    ■ Cases as adv. bāhirato from outside, from a foreign country Ja.i.121 bāhire outside (the Buddhist order) Dhp.254.
  • -assāda finding his enjoyment in outward things AN.i.280 (Kern,


    s. v. suggests “inclined towards heretic views”).

  • -āsa one whose wishes are directed outwards, whose desires are turned to things external Thag.634.

  • -kathā non-religious discourse, profane story Mil.24 (applied to the introductory chapter, thus “outside story” may be translated).

  • -tittha doctrine of outsiders Ja.iii.473.

  • -dāna gift of externals, gift of property as opposed to gift of the person Ja.iv.401 Ja.vi.486; Dāvs iii.33.

  • -pabbajjā the ascetic life outside the community of the Buddha; Brahmanic saintly life (thus equal to isi-pabbajjā. cp. bāhiraka˚). Ja.iii.352 Ja.iv.305.

  • -bhaṇḍa property, material things, objects Ja.iv.401.

  • -mantā ritualistic texts (or charms) of religions other than the Buddha’s Ja.iii.27.

  • -rakkhā protection of external means SN.i.73.

  • -lomi with the fleece outside (of a rug) Vin.ii.108.

  • -samaya doctrine of the outsiders, i.e. Brahmins Dhp-a.iii.392.

fr. bahi, as Sk. bāhya fr. bahis, cp. also bāhiya