the earth; only in oblique cases, used as adv. Instr. chamā on the ground, to the ground (= ved. kṣamā) MN.i.387; DN.iii.6; Ja.iii.232; Ja.iv.285;,; Vv.41#4 (Vv-a.183; bhūmiyaṃ); Thig.17; Thig.112 (Thag-a.116: chamāyaṃ); Pv.iv.5#3 (Pv-a.260: bhūmiyaṃ)
loc. chamāyaṃ Vin.i.118; AN.i.215; Snp.401; Vism.18; Thag-a.116; chamāya Vin.ii.214.

from kṣam, cp. khamati. It remains doubtful how the Dhtm (553, 555) came to define the root cham (= kṣam) as 1 hīḷane and 2 adane