(& before vowels dur˚) indeclinable
- syllable of exclamation (= duḥ “bad, woe” (beginning the word du (j)-jīvitaṃ) Dhp-a.ii.6, Dhp-a.ii.10 = Pv-a.280, cp. Ja.iii.47; Bdhgh’s expln of the syllable see at Vism.494.
- prefix, implying perverseness difficulty, badness (cp. dukkha). Original form *duḥ is preserved at dur- before vowels, but assimilated to a foll. consonant according to the rules of Assimilation, i.e. the cons. is doubled, with changes of v to bb & usual lengthening; dū before r (but also du˚). For purposes of convenience all compounds with du are referred to the simplex, e.g. dukkaṭa is to be looked up under kata, duggati under gati etc.
- dur˚: akkhāta, accaya, atikkama, atta adhiroha, anta, annaya, abhisambhava; āgata, ājāna āyuta, āsada; itthi; ukkhepa, ubbaha
- du˚: (k)kata, kara; (g)ga, gata, gati, gandha, gahīta (a)caja, carita, cola; (j)jaha, jāna, jivha, jīvita; (t)tappaya, tara; (d)dama, dasika; (n)naya, nikkhaya, nikkhitta niggaha, nijjhāpaya, nibbedha, nīta; (p)pañña paṭiānaya, paṭinissaggin, paṭipadā, paṭivijjha, paṭivedha pabhajja, pamuñca, pameyya, parihāra, payāta pasu, peyya, posa; (p)phassa; (bb = b): bala, balika budha; (bb = v): dubbaca =) vaca, vacana, vaṇṇa vijāna, vidū, vinivijjha, visodha, vuṭṭhika; (bbhaga bhara, bhāsita, bhikkha; (m)mati, mana, manku mukha, mejjha, medha; (y)yiṭṭha, yuja, yutta (du + r) = du-ratta, ropaya (dū + r): dū-rakkha; (l)labha; (s)saddhapaya, sassa, saha, sīla; hara.
Sk. duḥ & duṣ = Gr.; δύς-, Oir. du-, Ohg. zur-, zer-; antithetic prefix, generally opposed to su˚ = Gr. εὐ-etc. Ultimately identical with du2 in sense of asunder, apart, away from opposite or wrong
in compounds meaning two˚; see dvi B II.
(-˚) (adj- suff.) hurting, injuring, acting perfidiously, betraying, only in mitta˚ deceiving one’s friends SN.i.225; Snp.244 expl. as mitta-dūbhaka Snp-a.287, variant reading B mittadussaka; cp. mitta-dubbhika & mitta-dubbhin.
Sk. druha, druh, see duhana & duhitika