the throat Ja.i.216, Ja.i.264 Ja.iii.26; Ja.iv.494; Ja.i.194 (a dewlap); Pv-a.11, Pv-a.104.

  • -agga the top of the throat Sdhp.379;
  • -ajjhoharaniya able to be swallowed (of solid food) Dhs.646, Dhs.740, Dhs.875
  • -ggaha taking by the throat, throttling DN.i.144 (+ daṇḍapahāra);
  • -nāḷī the larynx Dhp-a.i.253; Dhp-a.ii.257
  • -ppamāṇa (adj.) going up to the neck Ja.i.264 (āvāṭa)
  • -pariyosāṇa forming the end of the throat Ja.iii.126
  • -ppavedhaka (nt.) pain in the throat MN.i.371;
  • -mūla the bottom of the throat Pv-a.283.
  • -vāṭaka the bottom (?) of the throat (oesophagus?) Vism.185, Vism.258.

Note.- gala with many other words containing a guttural + liquid element belongs to the onomatopoetic roots k̥l g̥l (k̥r g̥r), usually reduplicated (iterative), the main applications of which are the following:

  1. The (sounding) throat in designation of swallowing, mostly with a dark (guttural) vowel: gulp, belch gargle, gurgle.
  2. The sound produced by the throat (voice) or sound in general, particularly of noises or sounds either inarticulate, confused & indefinable or natural sounds striking enough; per se to form a sufficient means of recognition (i.e. name) of the animal which utters this sound (cuckoo, e.g.). To be divided into:
    1. palatal group (“light” sounds): squeak, yell giggle, etc., applied to

      1. Animate Nature: the cackling, crowing noise of Palmipeds & related birds reminding of laughter (heron, hen, cock; cp. P. koñca Lat. gallus).
      2. Inanimate Nature: the grinding nibbling, trickling, dripping, fizzing noises or sounds (P. galati, etc.).
    2. guttural group (“dark” sounds): groan, growl howl, etc., applied to

      1. Animate N.: the snorting grunting noise of the Pachyderms & related quadrupeds (elephant, op. P. koñca, kuñjara; pig, boar)-
      2. Inanimate N.: the roaring, crashing, thundering noises (P gaḷagaḷāyati, ghurughurāyati).
  3. The sound as indicating motion (produced by motion):
    1. palatal group (“sharp” sounds, characteristic of quick motion: whizz, spin, whirl): P. gaggaraka whirlpool Gr. κερκίς spindle, bobbin.
    2. guttural group (“dull” sounds, characteristic of slow and heavy motion: roll, thud, thunder). Sometimes with elimination of the sound-element applied to swelling & fullness, as in “bulge” or Gr. σφαραγέω (be full).

These three categories are not always kept clearly separate, so that often a palatal group shifts into the sphere of a guttural one & vice versa.

The formation of k̊l gI̊ roots is by no means an extinct process nor is it restricted to any special branch of a linguistic; family, as examples show. The main roots of Idg origin are the foll. which are all represented in Pāli (the categories are marked acc. to the foregoing scheme 1, 2A, 2B, 3): kal (2A): κλάζω, clango, Goth. hlahjan laugh; kār (2 A): κ ̈ηρυς, Sk. kāru (cp. P. kitti) cārmen; kel (2 A): κέλαδος, calo (cp. P. kandati) Ohg. hellan; ker (2 Aa): καρκαίρω, κόρκορος = querquedula = kakkara (partridge); kol (2 B): cuculus kokila (a) kolāhala and halāhala (b) kor (2 Ba) cornix (cp. P. kāka), corvus = crow = raven; Sk. krośati P. koñca; gṷel (1)Lat. gula, glutio, δέλεαρ; gṷer (1) βόρος, βιβρώσκω, Lat. voro, Sk. girati, Ohg querka; (3) βάραχρον (whirlpool) Sk. gargara: gel (1) Sk. gilati, Ohg. kela- gal (2 A): gallus (a) gloria (b); gar (2 Ab): γ ̈ηρυς, garrulus, Ohg. kara: gel (2 A) ξελιδών (a) hirrio (to whine), Ohg. gellan (b): ger (1) γαργαρίζω (gargle) Sk. gharghara (gurgling) (2 Aa) γέρανος = crane, Ger. krähen, Lat. gracillo (cackle); (2 Ba) Ohg. kerran (grunt), Sk. gṛṇāti (sing) (2 Ab) Sk. jarate (rustle); gur (2 Ba): γρύζω = grundio grunt; Lat. gurgulio; Sk. ghurghura.

With special reference to Pāli formations the foll list shows a few sound roots which are further discussed in the Dictionary s. v. Closely connected with Idg. k̊l gI̊ is the Pāli cerebral ṭ, tḥ, ḷ, ṇ, so that roots with these sounds have to be classed in a mutual relation with the liquids. In most cases graphic representation varies between both (cp. gala & gaḷa)-; kil (kiṇ) (2 Ab): kikī (cp. Sk. kṛka˚), kilikilāyati & kinkiṇāyati (tinkle) kili (click), kinkaṇika (bell); kur (2 B): ākurati to hawk to be hoarse; khaṭ; (1) khaṭakhaṭa (hawking) kākacchati (snore); (2 Aa) kukkuṭa (cock); gal (1) gala (throat) uggilati (vomit); (2 Ab) galati (trickle): (2 Ba Pk. galagajjiya (roar) & guluguliya (bellow); (2 Bb gaḷagaḷāyati (roar); gar (2 A); gaggara (roar & cackle cp. Sk. gargara to 3); (2 B); gaggarāyati (roar); (3) gaggaraka (whirlpool); ghar (1) Sk. gharghara (gurgling) (2 Ab) gharati (trickle), Sk. ghargharikā (bell); (2 Bb ghurughurāyati (grunt)
■ See also kakaca, kanka kankaṇa, cakora (cankora), cakkavaka, jagghati, ciṭiciṭāyati taṭataṭayati, timingala, papphāsa.

*gel to devour, to swallow = Lat. gula, Ohg. kela, cp. Sk. gala jalukā, and *gṷel, as Gr. δέλεαρ, cp. also Sk. girati, gilati Dhtp.262 gives as meaning of gal “adana.” This root gal also occurs at Vism.410 in fanciful def. of “puggala”; the meaning here is not exactly sure (to cry, shout?)