, f.) a cow, an ox, bull, pl. cattle. For f. cp gāvī; see also *gava*˚ for cpds
■ Sg. nom. go (Snp.580 also in composition, cp. aja-go-mahisādi Pv-a.80 = pasū) gen. gavassa (MN.i.429); instr. gavena, gāvena; acc gavaṃ, gāvan; abl. gavamhā, gavā (DN.i.201 = AN.ii.95 Pp.69); loc. gavamhi, gāvimhi (Snp-a.323), gave (Snp.310)
■ Pl. nom. gāvo (DN.i.141; MN.i.225; AN.i.205 AN.ii.42 sq.; Snp.20, Snp.296, Snp.307; Ja.i.295); gen. gonaṃ AN.ii.75 (cp. Vedic gonām), gavaṃ (Ja.iv.172, cp. gavaṃ pati) gunnaṃ (AN.i.229, AN.ii.75; AN.v.271; Ja.i.194; Ja.iii.112; Ja.iv.223) instr. gohi (Snp.33); acc. gāvo (MN.i.225; AN.i.205; Snp.304; Dhp.19, Dhp.135); abl. gohi; loc. gosu, gavesu
■ See also gava, gavesati, goṇa.

  • -kaṇṭaka the hoof of an ox, in ˚haṭā bhūmi, trampled by the feet of cattle Vin.i.195; AN.i.136 (cp. Vin. Texts ii.34);
  • -kaṇṇa a large species of deer Ja.v.406 (= gaṇin), Ja.v.416 (khagga +); Dhs-a.331 (gavaya +); cp. next
  • -kāṇā (f.) = gokaṇṇa DN.iii.38 = DN.iii.53;
  • -kula (nt.) a cow pen, a station of cattle SN.iv.289;
  • -gaṇa a herd of cattle MN.i.220; AN.i.229; Ja.ii.127; Dhp-a.i.175; Vv-a.311
  • -ghaṃsikā a cow-hide (?). Vin.ii.117 (cp. Vin. Texts iii.98);
  • -ghātaka one who kills cows, a butcher DN.ii.294 (in simile); MN.i.58, MN.i.244, MN.i.364 (˚sūnā, slaughter-house) SN.ii.255; SN.iv.56; AN.iii.302, AN.iii.380; Ja.v.270; Vism.348 (in simile).

I. gocara Literal

  1. (noun-m.) pasture, lit. “a cow’s grazing,” search after food; fodder, food, subsistence

    1. of animals: Ja.i.221; Ja.iii.26; Dhp.135 (daṇḍena gopālo gāvo pāceti gocaraṃ: with a stick the cowherd drives the cattle to pasture). Sīho gocarāya pakkamati “the lion goes forth for his hunt” AN.ii.33 AN.iii.121; gocarāya gacchati to go feeding, to graze Snp.39; Ja.i.243; gocare carati to go feeding, to feed Ja.i.242.
    2. metaph. of persons, esp. the bhikkhu: pucchitabba gocara (and agocara) “enquiries have to be made concerning the fitness or otherwise of his pasturage (i.e. the houses in which he begs for food)” Vin.ii.208 samaṇo gocarato nivatto an ascetic returned from his “grazing” Pv.iv.1#42: Similarly at Vism.127, where a suitable g
      ■ gama ranks as one of the 7 desiderata for one intent on meditation
  2. (adj.) (-˚) feeding on or in, living in; metaph. dealing with, mixing with. vana living in the woods Pv.ii.6#5; vāri˚ (in water) Snp.605 jala˚ (id.) Ja.ii.158 (opp. thala˚). Vesiyā˚ (etc.) associating with v. Vin.i.70

II. gocara Applied

  1. (noun-m. or nt.) a “field” (of sense perception, etc.), sphere, object-˚ food for, an object of

    1. psychologically indriyānaṃ nānāgocarāni various spheres of sense-perception SN.v.218; sense-object (= ārammaṇaṃ) Pts.i.180; Pts.ii.97 Pts.ii.150 sq.; Dhs-a.314, Dhs-a.315 (sampatta˚ physical contact with an object, gandha˚ smell-contact, i.e. sensation) indriya˚ Sdhp.365
    2. ethically: ariyānaṃ gocare ratā “finding delight in the pasture of the good, walking in the ways of the good Dhp.22; vimokho yesaṃ gocaro “whose pasture is liberty” Dhp.92 = Thag.92 Esp. in phrase ācāra-gocara-sampanna “pasturing in the field of good conduct” DN.i.63 = Iti.118; MN.i.33; SN.v.187 Iti.96; analysed as Dvandva cpd. at Vb.246, Vb.247 but cp. pāpācāra-gocara Snp.280, Snp.282. This phrase (ācāra-gocara) is also discussed in detail at Vism.19 where 3 kinds of gocarā are distinguished, viz. upanissaya˚ ārakkha˚, upanibandha˚. So also in contrast w. agocara, an unfit pasture, or an unfit, i.e. bad sphere of life, in gocare & agocare carati to move in a congenial or uncongenial sphere AN.iii.389; AN.iv.345 sq. DN.iii.58 = DN.iii.77; SN.v.147; Vb.246, Vb.247 (expl. w. vesiyā etc., cp. above = having bad associations)
  2. (adj ˚) belonging to, dependent on, falling to the share of eta˚ dependent on this MN.i.319; sattasaddhamma˚ moving in the sphere of the seven golden rules SN.iii.83 rūpa˚ to be perceived by sight Ja.i.396; Nibbāna belonging to N. Sdhp.467.

-˚kusala (adj.) skilled in (finding proper) food; clever in right living-˚ behaving properly in, exercising properly MN.i.220 = AN.v.347 (of a cowherd driving out his cattle); SN.iii.266 sq. (samādhi˚); AN.iii.311 (do.), AN.v.352 sq. (w. ref. to cattāro satipaṭṭhānā); -˚gahaṇa the taking of food, feeding Ja.i.242 -˚gāma a village for the supply of food (for the bhikkhus) Pv-a.12, Pv-a.42; -˚ṭṭhāna pasturage Ja.iii.52; -˚pasuta intent on feeding Ja.iii.26; -˚bhūmi pasturage, a common Dhp-a.iii.60; -˚visaya (the sphere of) an object of sense SN.v.218; Vb.319; -caraṇa pasturing Ja.vi.335; -ṭṭha (nt.) [Sk. goṣṭha to sthā to stand; cp. Lat. stabulum stable; super-stes; Goth. awistr] a cow-stable, cow-pen MN.i.79; Ja.iv.223; -pa [Sk. gopa, cp. gopati] a cowherd herdsman Snp.18; Dhp.19; Ja.iv.364 (a robber); Vism.166 (in simile); Dhp-a.157, f. gopī Snp.22, Snp.32; -pakhuma (adj.) having eyelashes like a heifer DN.ii.18; DN.iii.144 DN.iii.167 sq.; Vv-a.162, Vv-a.279 (= āḷārapamha); -pada a cow’s footprint, a puddle AN.iii.188; AN.iv.102; Mil.287; also -padaka AN.iii.188 variant reading; DN-a.i.283; -pariṇāyaka leader of the cows, epithet of a bull (gopitā +) MN.i.220, MN.i.225; -pāla a cowherd (usually as ˚ka) Dhp.135; -pālaka = prec. Vin.i.152, Vin.i.243 sq.; MN.i.79, MN.i.115 sq., MN.i.220 = AN.v.347; MN.i.333; SN.iv.181; AN.i.205 (-˚uposatha); Mil.18, Mil.48; Vism.279 (in comparison); Dhp-a.iii.59; -pitā “father (protector of the cows” = gavaṃ pati, epithet of a bull MN.i.220 (+ ˚pariṇāyaka); -pī f. of gopa, q.v.; -pura (nt.) [Sk. gopura] the gate of a city Ja.vi.433; Mil.1, Mil.67, Mil.330; Bdhd 138; -balivadda in ˚nayena; in the expression gobalivadda (black-cattle-bull) i.e. by an accumulation of words Vv-a.258; -bhatta cows’ fodder Ja.iv.67; -maṇḍala ox-beat, ox-round, Cp.iii.15#1 (as gā˚), quoted Ja.i.47 (cp. assa-m˚); Snp-a.39; also in phrase ˚paribbūḷha Snp.301 (explained by Snp-a.320 as goyūthehi parikiṇṇa) Ja.vi.27; at MN.i.79 however it means the cowherds or peasants (see note MN.i.536: gopāladārakā or gāmadārakā to variant reading gāmaṇḍala) cp. gāmaṇḍala; -maya (m. nt. cowdung MN.i.79; AN.i.209, AN.i.295; AN.v.234, AN.v.250, AN.v.263 sq. Ne.23; Dhp-a.i.377. -˚pāṇaka a coprophagan, dor beetle Ja.ii.156; -˚piṇda a lump of cowdung Ja.i.242 -˚bhakkha eating cowdung DN.i.166≈; -māyu a jackal Pgdp.49; -mutta (and ˚ka) a precious stone of light red colour Vv-a iii; Dhs-a.151; -medaka = gomuttaka Vv-a.111.; -medha a cow sacrifice, in ˚yañña Snp-a.323 -yūtha a herd of cows Snp-a.322; Dhp-a.i.323; -rakkhā (f.) cow-keeping, tending cattle, usually combined with kasī, agriculturing MN.i.85; Pv.i.5#6; Ja.i.338; Ja.ii.128; given as a superior profession (ukkaṭṭha-kamma) Vin.iv.6 -ravaka the bellowing of a cow MN.i.225; -rasa (usually pl.) produce of the cow, enumerated in set of five, viz khīra, dadhi, takka, navanīta, sappi (milk, cream buttermilk, butter, ghee) Vin.i.244; Dhp-a.i.158, Dhp-a.i.323 Dhp-a.i.397; Vv-a.147; Snp-a.322; -rūpa (collect.) cattle Ja.i.194 Ja.iv.173; Mil.396 (bull); -lakkhaṇa fortune telling from cows DN.i.9≈; -vaccha (khīra˚ & takka˚) Vism.28; -vatika [Sk. govratin] one who lives after the mode of cows, of bovine practices MN.i.387; Ne.99 (cp. govata Dhs-a.355, and Dhs. trsl. p. 261); -vikattana (and ˚vikantana; Sk. vikṛntana) a butcher’s knife MN.i.244 MN.i.449; AN.iii.380 Sdhp.381 (vikatta only); -vittaka one whose wealth is cattle Ja.i.191; -vinda the supt. of cowherds AN.iii.373; -sappi ghee from cow’s milk Vin.iii.251; Dhs-a.320; -sālā cow-stable AN.i.188; -siṅga a cow’s horn Vism.254. -sita mixed with milk Vv-a.179 -sīla = govatika Dhs-a.355; -sīsa (nt.) an excellent kind of sandal wood Pv-a.215 (cp. Sp. Avs.i.67, Avs.i.68, Avs.i.109) -hanuka the jaw bone of a cow, in -ena koṭṭāpeti (koṭṭh˚ J) to massage with a cow’s jaw bone Vin.ii.266; Ja.iv.188; Ja.v.303.

Vedic go, Lat. bos, Gr. βοϋς, Ohg. chuo, Ags. cū = E. cow