The 2 Vedic roots jān˚ & jñā˚; are represented in Pali by jān˚ & ñā˚ (ña˚)
pot jāneyya (Snp.781) & jaññā (AN.iv.366; Snp.116, Snp.775; Dhp.157, Dhp.352; Ja.ii.346; Ja.iv.478); second sg. jāneyyāsi (MN.i.487; Ja.i.288); 1st pl. jāniyāma (Snp.873) & (archaic jānemu (Snp.76, Snp.599; Vv.83#11)
imper jānāhi (Snp.596 Snp.1026; Pv.ii.9#12); 3rd. sg. jānātu (Iti.28)
ppr jānanto & jānaṃ (DN.i.192; AN.i.128; Snp.722),
ppr med. jānamāna (Ja.i.168)
fut jānissati (Ja.ii.342; Ja.vi.364)
aor ajāni (Snp.536) & jāni (Ja.i.125, Ja.i.269); 3rd pl. jāniṃsu (Ja.ii.105; Vv-a.113)
ger jānitvā (Ja.i.293; Ja.iii.276)
inf jānituṃ (Ja.i.125).
caus jānāpeti (see below iv.2)
fut ñassati (DN.i.165)
aor aññāsi (Ja.i.271 & nāsi (Snp.471); 3rd pl. aññaṃsu (Vv.22#4)
ger ñatvā (freq.)
grd ñeyya AN.ii.135 (see below) & ñātabba (Pv-a.133)
inf ñātuṃ (freq.)
pp ñāta (q.v.).
pass ñāyati to be called or named (Mil.25).
II. Cognate Forms
Cnd s.v. explains jānāti by passati dakkhati adhigacchati vindati paṭilabhati, & ñatvā (No. 267) by jānitvā tulayitvā tirayitva vibhāvayitvā vibhūtaṃ katvā (very freq.) The 1st expln is also applied to abhijānāti, & the second to passitvā, viditaṃ katvā, abhiññāya & disvā. The use of the emphatic phrase jānāti passati is very frequent. Yaṃ tvaṃ na jānāsi na passasi taṃ tvaṃ icchasi kāmesi? Whom you know not neither have seen, is it she that you love and long for? DN.i.193; Bhagavā jānaṃ jānāti passaṃ passati cakkhubhūto ñāṇabhūto MN.i.111; similarly AN.iv.153 sq. See further DN.i.2, DN.i.40, DN.i.84, DN.i.157 sq, DN.i.165 DN.i.192 sq., DN.i.238 sq.; AN.i.128; AN.iii.338; AN.v.226; Snp.908 Cnd.35, Cnd.413, Cnd.517; Vism.200.
- Intrs. to know, to have or gain knowledge, to be experienced, to be aware, to find out mayam pi kho na jānāma surely, even we do not know DN.i.216; te kho evaṃ jāneyyaṃ they ought to know ib. jānantā nāma n’ âhesuṃ “nobody knew” Ja.iii.188 jānāhi find out Ja.i.184; kālantarena jānissatha you will see in time Pv-a.13; ajānanto unawares, unsuspecting Ja.i.223; ajānamāna id. Pv.ii.3#14.
- Trs. to know recognize, be familiar with (usually c. acc., but also with gen.: Ja.i.337; Ja.ii.243), to have knowledge of, experience find; to infer, conclude, distinguish, state, define: yaṃ ahaṃ jānāmi taṃ tvaṃ jānāsi DN.i.88; aham p’ etaṃ na jānāmi Snp.989; jānanti taṃ yakkhabhūtā Pv.iv.1#35 paccakkhato ñatvā finding out personally Ja.i.262 Ja.iii.168; cittam me Gotamo jānāti SN.i.178; jānāti maṃ Bhagavā SN.i.116; kathaṃ jānemu taṃ mayaṃ? How shall we know (or identify) him? Vv.83#11; yathā jānemu brāhmaṇaṃ so that we may know what a b. is Snp.599 yath’ âhaṃ jāneyyaṃ vasalaṃ Snp.p.21; ajānanto ignorant Pv-a.4; annapānaṃ ajāṇanto (being without bread water) Pv-a.169; ittaraṃ ittarato ñatvā inferring the trifling from the trifle Pv.i.11#11; ingha me uṇh’ odakaṃ jānāhi find me some hot water SN.i.174; seyyaṃ jānāhi Vin.iv.16; phalaṃ pāpassa jānamāna (having experienced) Ja.i.168; mantaṃ j. (to be in possession of a charm Ja.i.253; maggaṃ na j. Snp.441; pamāṇaṃ ajānitvā (knowing no measure) Pv-a.130.
- With double acc.: to recognize as, to see in, take for, identify as, etc (cp. Caus.): petaṃ maṃ jānāhi “see in me a Peta Pv.ii.9#12 (= upadhārehi Pv-a.119); bhadd’ itthiyā ti maṃ aññaṃsu (they knew me as = they called me Vv.22#4.
- Grd. ñeyya as nt. = knowledge (cp ñāṇa): yāvatakaṃ ñeyyaṃ tāvatakaṃ ñāṇaṃ (knowledge coincides with the knowable, or: his knowledge is in proportion to the k., i.e. he knows all) Cnd.235#2m ñāṇaṃ atikkamitvā ñeyyapatho n’ atthi “beyond knowledge there is no way of knowledge” ib.; ñeyyasāgara the ocean of knowledge Pv-a.1.
- Caus jānāpeti to make known, to inform, or (with attānaṃ to identify, to reveal oneself Ja.i.107 (att. ajānāpetvā), Ja.vi.363; Vism.92 (att.); Pv-a.149 (att.); Dhp-a.ii.62.
Vedic jña, jānāti *genē & *gné, cp. Gr. γιγνώσκω, γνωτός, γν ̈ωσις; Lat. nosco, notus, (i)gnarus (cp E. i-gnorant); Goth. kunnan; Ohg. kennan, Ags cnāwan = E. know