adjective entire, whole Ja.iv.111, Ja.iv.112.
neuter one of the aids to kammaṭṭhāna, the practice by means of which mystic meditation (bhāvanā, jhāna) may be attained. They are fully described at AN.v.46 sq., AN.v.60; usually enumerated as ten [sāvakā dasa k˚-āyatanāni bhāventi] paṭhavī˚, āpo˚, tejo˚, vāyo˚, nīla˚, pīta˚, lohita˚ odāta˚, ākāsa˚, viññāṇa˚-that is, earth, water, fire air; blue, yellow, red, white; space, intellection (or perhaps consciousness) MN.ii.14; DN.iii.268, DN.iii.290; Ne.89 Ne.112; Dhs.202; Pts.i.6, Pts.i.95; cp. Manual 49–52; Bdhd 4 90 sq., 95 sq
■ For the last two (ākāsa˚ and viññāṇa˚ we find in later sources āloka˚ and (paricchinn’) ākāsa Vism.110; cp. Dhs trsl. 43 n. 4, 57 n. 2; Cpd. 54, 202-Eight (the above omitting the last two) are given at Pts.i.49, Pts.i.143, Pts.i.149
■ See further Ja.i.313; Ja.iii.519; Dhs-a.186 sq. There are 14 manners of practising the kasiṇas (of which the first nine are: k˚-ânulomaṃ k˚-paṭilomaṃ; k˚-ânupaṭilomaṃ; jhānânulomaṃ; jh˚paṭi˚; jh˚-ânupaṭi˚; jh˚-ukkantikaṃ; k˚ ukk˚; jh˚k˚-ukk˚) Vism.374; cp. Bdhd 5, 101 sq., 104, 152. Nine qualities or properties of (paṭhavi-) kasiṇa are enumerated at Vism.117
■ Each k. is fivefold, according to uddhaṃ, adho, tiriyaṃ, advayaṃ, appamāṇaṃ; MN.ii.15 etc
■ kasiṇaṃ oloketi to fix one’s gaze on the particular kasiṇa chosen Ja.v.314; -ṃ samannāharati to concentrate one’s mind on the k. Ja.iii.519.
-āyatana the base or object of a kasiṇa exercise (see above as 10 such objects) DN.iii.268; MN.ii.14; Pts.i.28 etc.; -ārammaṇa = ˚āyatana Vism.427 (three, viz. tejo˚ odāta˚, āloka˚). -kamma the k. practice Ja.i.141 Ja.iv.306; Ja.v.162, Ja.v.193. -jhāna the k. meditation Dhs-a.413 -dosa fault of the k. object Vism.117, Vism.123 (the 4 faults of paṭhavī-kasiṇa being confusion of the 4 colours) -parikamma the preliminary, preparatory rites to the exercise of a kasiṇa meditation, such as preparing the frame, repeating the necessary formulas, etc. Ja.i.8 Ja.i.245; Ja.iii.13, Ja.iii.526; Dhs-a.187
■ ˚ṃ katheti to give instructions in these preparations Ja.iii.369; ˚ṃ karoti to perform the k-preparations Ja.iv.117; Ja.v.132, Ja.v.427; Ja.vi.68 -maṇḍala a board or stone or piece of ground divided by depressions to be used as a mechanical aid to jhāna exercise. In each division of the maṇḍala a sample of a kasiṇa was put. Several of these stone maṇḍalas have been found in the ruins at Anurādhapura. Cp Cpd. 54 f. 202 f. Ja.iii.501; Dhp-a.iv.208. -samāpatti attainment in respect of the k. exercise Cnd.466#8 (ten such).