Kira & Kila


  1. emphatic: really, truly, surely. (Gr. δή)
  2. presumptive (with pres. or fut.) I should think one would expect.
  3. narrative (with aor.): now, then, you know (Gr. δδε, Lat. at, G. aber).

kira in continuous story is what “iti” is in direct or indirect speech. It connects new points in a narrative with something preceding, either as expected or guessed It is aoristic in character (cp. Sk. sma). In questions it is dubitative, while in ordinary statements it gives the appearance of probability, rather than certainty to the sentence. Therefore the definitions of commentators: “people say” or “I have heard”: kirasaddo anussavane: “kira refers to a report by hearsay” Pv-a.103; kira-saddo anussav’atthe Ja.i.158; Vv-a.322 are conventional and one-sided, and in both cases do not give the meaning required at the specified passages. The same holds good for Ja.i.158; Ja.ii.430 (kirā ti anussavatthe nipāto).

  1. mahantaṃ kira Bārāṇasirajjaṃ “the kingdom of B. is truly great Ja.i.126; attā hi kira duddamo “self is difficult to subdue we know” Dhp.159; amoghaṃ kira me puṭṭhaṃ Snp.356
    ■ na kira surely not Snp.840; Ja.i.158.
  2. esā kira Visākhā nāma “that I presume is the Visākhā (of whom we have heard) Dhp-a.i.399; petā hi kira jānanti “the petas, I should say, will know” Pv.ii.7#10 evaṃ kira Uttare? “I suppose this is so, Uttarā” Vv-a.69. evaṃ kira saggaṃ gamissatha “thus you will surely go to Heaven” Vv.82#8; “I hear” Dhp-a.i.392.
  3. atīte kira with aor. once upon a time… Pv-a.46, etc.; so kira pubbe… akāsi, at one time, you know, he had made… Ja.i.125; sā kira dāsī adāsi now the maid gave her… Pv-a.46; cp. Ja.i.195, etc.

Vedic kila