anger. Nearest synonyms are āghāta (Dhs.1060 = Cnd.576 both expositions also of dosa), upanāha (always in chain rāga, dosa, moha, kodha, upanāha) and dhūma (cp χυμός, Mhg. toûm = anger). As pair k. and upanāha AN.i.91, AN.i.95; in sequence kodha upanāha makkha paḷāsa etc. Nd ii.rāga 1.; Vb.357 sq.; Vism.53, Vism.107, Vism.306; in formula abhijjhā byāpāda k. upanāha MN.i.36; AN.i.299 = AN.iv.148; cp. AN.iv.456 = AN.v.209; AN.v.39, AN.v.49 sq., AN.v.310 AN.v.361. As equivalent of āghāta Dhs.1060 = Cnd.576, cp Pp.18. In other combination: with mada and thambha Snp.245; kadariya Snp.362; pesuniya Snp.928; mosavajja Snp.866, Snp.868 (cp. SN.i.169). Other passages, e.g. AN.i.283; SN.i.240; Snp.537, (lobha˚); Pv.ii.3#7; Dhp.i.52 (anattha-janano kodho); Pv-a.55, Pv-a.222
■ kodha is one of the obstacles to Arahantship, and freedom from kodha is one of the fundamental virtues of a well-balanced mind
■ mā vo kodho ajjhabhavi “let not anger get the better of you” SN.i.240; māno hi te brāhmaṇa khāribhāro kodho dhūmo bhasmani mosavajjaṃ etc. “anger is the smoke (smouldering) in the ashes” SN.i.169 = Cnd.576
■ kodhaṃ chetvā cutting off anger SN.i.41 = SN.i.47 = SN.i.161 = SN.i.237; kodhaṃ jahe vippajaheyya mānaṃ “give up anger, renounce conceit Ja.i.23 Ja.i.25 = Dhp.221; kodhaṃ pajahanti vipassino: “the wise give up anger” Iti.2 = Iti.7; panuṇṇa-kodha (adj.) one who has driven out anger Snp.469; akkodhena jine kodhaṃ conquer anger by meekness Dhp.223 = Ja.ii.4 = Vv-a.69. Yo ye uppatitaṃ kodhaṃ rathaṃ bhantaṃ va dhāraye tam ahaṃ sārathiṃ brūmi. “He who restrains rising anger as he would a drifting cart, him I call a waggoner” Dhp.222, cp. Snp.1
■ akkodha freedom from anger, meekness, conciliation MN.i.44; SN.i.240 (with avihiṃsā tenderness, kindness); AN.i.95; Dhp.223 = Ja.ii.4 = Vv-a.69.
- -ātimāna anger and conceit Snp.968.
- -upāyāsa companionship or association with anger, the state of being pervaded with anger (opp. akkodh˚) MN.i.360, MN.i.363 often compared with phenomena of nature suggesting swelling up, viz. “uddhumāyika” kodhupāyāsassa adhivacanaṃ MN.i.144; “sa-ummī” Iti.114; “sobbho papāto” SN.iii.109;
- -garu “having respect for” i.e. pursuing anger (opp. saddhammagaru) AN.ii.46 sq., AN.ii.84
- -paññāṇa (adj.) knowing the true nature of anger Snp.96 (cp. Snp-a.170);
- -bhakkha feeding on, i.e. fostering anger, epithet of a Yakkha SN.i.238;
- -vinaya the discipline or control of anger AN.i.91; AN.v.165, AN.v.167 (combd. with upanāha vinaya).
Vedic krodha fr. krudh, cp. kujjhati