group, heap, collection, aggregate, body

Definitions and synonyms

Snp-a.31 gives the foll. synonyms and similes of kāya: kuṭī, guhā (Snp.772), deha, sandeha (Dhp.148 = Thag.20), nāvā (Dhp.369), ratha (SN.iv.292) dhaja, vammīka (MN.i.144), kuṭikā (Thag.1); and at Kp-a.38 the foll. def.: kāye ti sarīre, sarīraṃ hi asucisañcayato kucchitānaṃ vā kesādīnaṃ āyabhūtato kāyo ti vuccati.… It is equivalent to deha: SN.i.27; Pv-a.10; to sarīra Kp-a.38; Pv-a.63, to nikāya (deva˚ DN.iii.264; and cp. formula of jāti: sattānaṃ tamhi tamhi sattanikāye jāti… Cnd.257.

Literal meaning.

  1. mahājana-kāya a collection of people, a crowd SN.iv.191; SN.v.170; Vv-a.78
    ■ bala˚ a great crowd Snp.p.105; Dhp-a.i.193, Dhp-a.i.398.
  2. group or division: satta kāyā akaṭā, etc. (seven eternal groups or principles) DN.i.56 = MN.i.517 = SN.iii.211 (in Pakudha Kaccāyana’s theory); with reference to groups of sensations or sense-organs, as vedanā-kāya, saññā˚, viññāṇa˚ phassa˚, etc. SN.iii.60, SN.iii.61; DN.iii.243, DN.iii.244; taṇhā DN.iii.244; appl. to hatthi˚, ratha˚, patti˚, groups of elephants, carriages or soldiers SN.i.72

■ A good idea of the extensive meaning of kāya may be gathered from the classification of the 7 kāyas at Ja.ii.91, viz. camma˚ dāru˚, loha˚, ayo˚, vāluka˚, udaka˚, phalaka˚, or “bodies” (great masses, substances) of skin, wood copper, iron, sand, water, and planks
■ Var. other combinations: Asura˚ AN.i.143; DN.iii.7; Ābhassara˚ (“world of radiance”) DN.i.17 = DN.iii.29, DN.iii.84; Deva˚ SN.i.27, SN.i.30; DN.iii.264 (˚nikāya); dibbā kāyā AN.i.143; Tāvatiṃsa DN.iii.15.

Applied meaning

Kāya under the physical aspect is an aggregate of a multiplicity of elements which finally can be reduced to the four “great elements, viz. earth, water, fire, and air (DN.i.55). This “heap,” in the valuation of the Wise (muni), shares with all other objects the qualities of such elements and is therefore regarded as contemptible, as something which one has to get rid of, as a source of impurity. It is subject to time and change, it is built up and kept alive by cravings, and with death it is disintegrated into the elements. But the kamma which determined the appearance of this physical body has naturally been renewed and assumes a new form. II. Kāya under the psychological aspect is the seat of sensation (Dhs §§ 613 16), and represents the fundamental organ of touch which underlies all other sensation. Developed only in later thought Dhs-a. 311 cf. Mrs. Rhys Davids, Bud. Psy Ethics lvi. ff.; Bud. Psy. 143, 185 f.

I. (Physical)

  1. Understanding of the body is attained through introspection (sati). In the group of the four sati-paṭṭhānas, the foundations of introspection the recognition of the true character of “body” comes first (see Vb.193). The standing formula of this recognition is kāye kāyānupassī… contemplating body as an accumulation, on which follows the description of this aggregate: “he sees that the body is clothed in skin, full of all kinds of dirty matter, and that in this body there are hair, nails, teeth,” etc. (the enumeration of the 32 ākāras, as given Kp iii.). The conclusions drawn from this meditation give a man the right attitude. The formula occurs frequently, both in full and abridged, e.g. DN.ii.293, DN.ii.294; DN.iii.104, DN.iii.141; AN.iii.323 = AN.v.109; SN.iv.111 = SN.v.278; Vb.193, Vb.194 Ne.83, Ne.123; with slight variation: kāye asubhânupassī… AN.iii.142 sq.; AN.v.109 (under asubhasaññā) Iti.81; cp. kāye aniccânupassī SN.iv.211; and kāyagatā sati
    ■ This accumulation is described in another formula with: ayaṃ… kāyo rūpī cātum(m)ahābhūtiko mātā-pettika-sambhavo odana-kummās’ upacayo etc. “this body has form (i.e. is material, visible) is born from mother and father, is a heap of gruel and sour milk, is subject to constant dressing and tending to breaking up and decay,” etc., with inferences DN.i.55 = SN.iii.207; SN.ii.94; SN.iv.194; SN.v.282, SN.v.370; DN.i.76 DN.i.209; MN.i.144, MN.i.500; MN.ii.17; AN.iv.386 = SN.iv.83.
  2. Various qualities and functions of the material body. As trunk of the body (opposed to pakkhā and sīsa) SN.ii.231; also at Pv.i.8#3; as depending on nourishment (āhāra-ṭṭhitika, etc.) SN.v.64; AN.ii.145 (with taṇhā māna, methuna); as needing attention: see ˚*parihārika*. As saviññāṇaka, having consciousness AN.iv.53; SN.ii.252 = SN.iii.80, SN.iii.103, SN.iii.136, SN.iii.169; cp. āyu usmā ca viññānaṃ yadā kāyaṃ jahant’ imaṃ SN.iii.143. As in need of breathing assāsa-passāsa SN.v.330, SN.v.336; as tired fatigued (kilanta-kāya) kilanta-kāyā kilanta-cittā te devā tamhā kāyā cavanti “tired in body, tired in mind these gods fall out of this assembly” (DN.i.20; DN.iii.32≈) in other connection Pv-a.43; see also kilanta. kāyo kilanto DN.iii.255 sq.; = AN.iv.332; SN.v.317; MN.i.116 jiṇṇassa me… kāyo na paleti Snp.1144; ātura-kāyo SN.iii.1 (cittaṃ anāturaṃ); paripuṇṇa-k˚ suruci sujāto etc., with a perfect body (of the Buddha) Snp.548 Thag.818; cp. mahā-k˚ (of Brahmins) Snp.298. The body of a Buddha is said to be endowed with the 32 signs of a great man: Bhagavato kāye dvattiṃsa mahāpurisa-lakkhaṇāni… Snp.p.107, cp. Snp.549. The Tathāgata is said to be dhamma-kāyo “author and speaker of Doctrine,” in the same sense Brahma-kāyo “the best body” (i.e. of Doctrine) DN.iii.84 (Dial. iii, 81).
  3. Valuation of physical body. From the contemplating of its true character (kāyânupassī) follows its estimation as a transient, decaying, and repulsive object-kāye anicc’ ânupassī SN.iv.211 (and vay’ ânupassī nirodh’ ânupassī), so also asubhânupassī Iti.81 kāyañ ca bhindantaṃ ñatvā Iti.69; evaṃdhammo (i.e. a heap of changing elements) AN.iii.324; aciraṃ vat ayaṃ kāyo paṭhaviṃ adhisessati chuddho apetaviññāṇo niratthaṃ va kaliṅgaraṃ Dhp.41. pittaṃ semhañ ca vamati kāyamhā Snp.198. As bahu-dukkho bahuādīnavo AN.v.109; as anicca dukkha, etc. MN.i.500; MN.ii.17 kāyena aṭṭiyamānā harayamānā SN.iv.62; SN.v.320 dissati imassa kāyassa ācayo pi apacayo pi ādānam pi nikkhepanam pi SN.ii.94
    ■ This body is eaten by crows and vultures after its death: SN.v.370. Represented as pūti˚; foul SN.i.131; SN.iii.120
    ■ Bdhgh. at Vism.240 defines kāya as “catu-mahābhūtika pūti-kāya” (cp similar passages on p. 367: patthaddho bhavati kāyo pūtiko bhavati kāyo).
  4. Similes. Out of the great number of epithets (adhivacanāni) and comparisons only a few can be mentioned (cp. above under def. & syn.): The body is compared to an abscess (gaṇḍa) SN.iv.83 = AN.iv.386; a city (nagara) SN.iv.194; a cart (ratha) SN.iv.292; an anthill (vammīka) MN.i.144; all in reference to its consisting of the four fundamental elements, cp. also: pheṇ ûpamaṃ kāyaṃ imaṃ viditvā “knowing that the body is like froth” Dhp.46; kumbh’ ûpamaṃ kāyaṃ imaṃ viditvā nagar’ ûpamaṃ cittaṃ idaṃ ṭhapetvā Dhp.40 the body is as fragile as a water-pot.
  5. Dissolution of the body is expressed in the standard phrase: kāyassa bhedā param maraṇā…, i.e. after death… upon which usually follows the mention of one of the gatis, the destinies which the new kāya has to experience, e.g. DN.i.82, DN.i.107, DN.i.143, DN.i.162, DN.i.245, DN.i.247, DN.i.252 DN.iii.96, DN.iii.97, DN.iii.146, DN.iii.181, DN.iii.235; MN.i.22; SN.i.94; SN.iii.241; Dhp.140; Iti.12, Iti.14; Ja.i.152; Pv-a.27, etc., etc. Cp. also iv.

II. (Psychological)

As the seat of feeling, kāya is the fifth in the enumeration of the senses (āyatanāni) It is ajjhattika as sense (i.e. subjective) and its object is the tangible (phoṭṭhabba). The contact between subject and object consists either in touching (phusitvā or in sensing (viññeyya). The formulas vary, but are in essence the same all through, e.g. kāya-viññeyyā phoṭṭhabbā DN.i.245; kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā DN.iii.226, DN.iii.250, DN.iii.269; MN.i.33; MN.ii.42; SN.iv.104, SN.iv.112 kāyena phusitvā AN.v.11; kāyo c’ eva phoṭṭhabbā ca DN.iii.102. Best to be grouped here is an application of kāya in the sense of the self as experiencing a great joy the whole being, the “inner sense,” or heart. This realization of intense happiness (such as it is while it lasts), pīti-sukha, is the result of the four stages of meditation, and as such it is always mentioned after the jhānas in the formula: so imaṃ eva kāyaṃ vivekajena pīti-sukhena abhisandeti… “His very body does he so pervade with the joy and ease born of detachment from worldliness” DN.i.73 sq. = MN.i.277; AN.ii.41 etc
■ A similar context is that in which kāya is represented as passaddha, calmed down, i.e. in a state which is free from worldly attachment (vivekaja). This “peace” of the body (may be translated as “my senses my spirits” in this connection) flows out of the peace of the mind and this is born out of the joy accompanying complete satisfaction (pamuditā) in attaining the desired end. The formula is pamuditassa pīti jāyati pītimanassa kāyo passambhati, passaddhakāyo sukhaṃ vedeti sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati DN.iii.241, DN.iii.288; SN.iv.351; MN.i.37; AN.iii.21, AN.iii.285; AN.iv.176; AN.v.3, AN.v.333; Vb.227. Similarly: pamuditāya pīti jāyati, pītimanāya kāyo p˚ passadhakāyā sukhaṃ ved˚ Vin.i.294 (c̣p. Vin. Texts ii.224: “all my frame will be at peace,” or “individuality”; see note) passaddhakāya-sankhāra mentioned at AN.v.29 sq. is one of the ten ariya-vāsā, the noblest conditions. A quasi-analogy between kāya and kāma is apparent from a number of other passages kāya-chando-˚sneho-˚anvayatā pahīyati MN.i.500; ajjhattañ ca bahiddha ca kāye chandaṃ virājaye Snp.203 kāye avigata-rāgo hoti (kāme, rūpe) DN.iii.238 = AN.iii.249; madhurakajāto viya kāyo SN.iii.106; AN.iii.69.

III. (Ethical)

Kāya is one of the three channels by which a man’s personality is connected with his environment & by which his character is judged, viz action, the three being kāya, vacī (vāca) and manas. These three; kammantas, activities or agents, form the three subdivisions of the sīla, the rules of conduct Kāya is the first and most conspicuous agent, or the principle of action κα ̓τ ἐςοξήν, character in its pregnant sense.

Kāya as one of a triad.-Its usual combination is in the formula mentioned, and as such found in the whole of the Pāli Canon. But there is also another combination found only in the older texts, viz. kayenā vācāya uda cetasā: yañ ca karoti kāyena vācāya uda cetasā taṃ hi tassa sakaṃ hoti tañ ca ādāya gacchati SN.i.93 yo dhammacārī kāyena vācāya uda cetasā idh eva nam pasaṃsanti pacca sagge pamodati SN.i.102
■ So also at AN.i.63; Snp.232. Besides in formula arakkhitena kāyena a˚ vācāya a˚ cittena SN.ii.231 = SN.ii.271; SN.iv.112. With su- and duccarita the combination is extremely frequent e.g. SN.i.71, SN.i.72; MN.i.22, etc., etc. In other comb we have kāya-(v˚., m.˚) kamma, moneyya, soceyya, etc-k˚. v˚. m˚. hiṃsati SN.i.165; saṃsappati AN.v.289 sq. kāye (v˚. m˚.) sati kāya-sañcetanā-hetu uppajjati SN.ii.39 sq.; The variations of k-in the ethics of the Dhamma under this view of k˚. v˚. m˚. are manifold, all based on the fundamental distinctions between good and bad, all being the raison d’être of kamma: yaṃ… etarahi kammaṃ karoti kāyena v. m. idaṃ vuccati navakammaṃ SN.iv.132
■ Passages with reference to good works are e.g. DN.iii.245; AN.i.151; AN.v.302 sq.; (see also Kamma ii.2 b. c.)
■ With reference to evil SN.iii.241, SN.iii.247; AN.i.201; kin nu kāyena vācāya manasā dukkaṭaṃ kataṃ Pv.ii.1#3 and passim. Assutavā puthujjano tīhi ṭhānehi micchā paṭipajjati kāyena v. m SN.ii.151; pāpaṃ na kayirā vacasā manasā kāyena vā kiñcana sabbaloke SN.i.12 = SN.i.31; yassa kāyena vācāya manasā n’atthi dukkaṭaṃ saṃvutaṃ tīhi ṭhānehi, tam ahaṃ brūmi brāhmaṇaṃ Dhp.391 = Ne.183. Kāyena saṃvaro sādhu sādhu vācāya saṃvaro manasā saṃvaro sādhu sādhu sabbattha saṃvaro Dhp.361 = SN.i.73; Mil.399; ye ca kāyena v. m. ca susaṃvutā na te Māravasânugā na te Mārassa paccagū SN.i.104; vācānurakkhī manasā susaṃvuto kāyena ca akusalaṃ na kayirā Dhp.281 = Ne.183.

Kāya as one of a dyad: vācā and kāya: SN.i.172 (˚gutta) MN.i.461 (rakkhita and a˚); Pv.i.2#2 (˚saññatā and opp.); Vism.28 (k˚-vacī-kamma); Pv-a.98.

Kāya alone as a collective expression for the three: AN.i.54; Dhp.259, Dhp.391; Snp.206, Snp.407; kāye avītarāgo MN.i.101; AN.iii.249; AN.iv.461 sq.; ˚-samācāra SN.v.354 kāyaṃ paṇidhāya Pts.i.175; Vb.244 = Vb.252; bhāvita and a˚ MN.i.239; AN.i.250; AN.iii.106 sq., cp.: kāya-ppakopaṃ rakkheyya, kāyena saṃvuto siyā kāyaduccaritaṃ hitvā kāyena sucaritaṃ care Dhp.231. Ahiṃsakā ye munayo niccaṃ kāyena saṃvutā Dhp.225.

Kāya in combination with citta: ṭhito va kāyo hoti ṭhitaṃ cittaṃ… SN.v.74; anikaṭṭha-kāyo nikaṭṭha-citto AN.ii.137; sāraddha-kāyo sankiliṭṭha-citto AN.v.93 = AN.v.95 AN.v.97; bhāvita-kāyo, ˚sīlo, ˚citto, ˚pañño SN.iv.111; AN.iv.111; AN.v.42 sq. Apakassa kāyaṃ apakassa cittaṃ SN.ii.198. Kāya-citta-passaddhi, etc. Dhs §§ 29–51. In these six couples (or yugalas) later Abhidhamma distinguished kāya as = the cetasikas (mental properties or the vedanā, saññā and sankhārā khandhas), body being excluded. Cpd. 96. See also combination kilantakāya kilanta-citta under kilamati.

IV. (Various)

Kāyena (i.e. “visibly”) aññamaññaṃ passituṃ AN.ii.61; as nānatta˚ and ekatta˚ at AN.iv.39 = Cnd.570. The relation between rūpa-kāya (= cātumahābhūtika), and nāma-kāya, the mental compound (= vedanā saññā, etc.) is discussed at Ne.77, Ne.78, and Pts.i.183 sq., see also SN.ii.24. K. is anattā, i.e. k. has no soul AN.v.109; SN.iv.166. n’âyaṃ kāyo tumhākaṃ n’āpi paresaṃ, purāṇaṃ idaṃ kammaṃ… “neither is this body yours, nor anyone else’s: it is (the appearance of) former karma” SN.ii.64, SN.ii.65 = Cnd.680. Dissamānena kāyena and upaḍḍha-dissamānena SN.i.156. Manomaya-kāya a body made by the mind (cp. Vv-a.10 and DN-a.i.110, DN-a.i.120, DN-a.i.222) according to Bdhgh only at the time of jhāna SN.v.282 sq.; manomaya pīti-bhakkha sayaṃpabha DN.i.17 = Vv-a.10; manomayaṃ kāyaṃ abhinimmināya… DN.i.77; m˚ sabbanga-paccangī DN.i.34, DN.i.77, DN.i.186, DN.i.195
■ Under the control of psychic powers (iddhi): kāyena va saṃvatteti he does as he likes with his body, i.e. he walks on water, is ubiquitous, etc (yāva brahmalokā pi: even up to heaven) SN.v.265; DN.i.78 = AN.i.170: see also SN.v.283, SN.v.284
■ In the various stages of Saṃsāra; kāyaṃ nikkhipati he lays down his (old) body SN.iv.60, SN.iv.400; cp. SN.iii.241 (ossaṭṭha-kāya) referring to continuous change of body during day and night (of a Petī) Pv.ii.12#11.

  • -aṅga a limb of the body, kāy’angaṃ vāc’angaṃ vā na kopenti: they remain motionless and speechless (ref. to the bhikkhus begging) Ja.iii.354; Dhs-a.93, Dhs-a.240;
  • -ānupassin in combination kāye kāyânupassī “realizing in the body an aggregate” DN.ii.94, DN.ii.100, DN.ii.291 sq.; DN.iii.58 DN.iii.77, DN.iii.141, DN.iii.221, DN.iii.276; MN.i.56; AN.i.39, AN.i.296; AN.ii.256; AN.iii.449 AN.iv.300, AN.iv.457 sq.; SN.iv.211; SN.v.9, SN.v.75, SN.v.298, SN.v.329 sq.; Vb.193 sq.; Vb.236; see also above. Der.: ˚anupassanā Pts.i.178, Pts.i.184; Pts.ii.152, Pts.ii.163, Pts.ii.232; ˚passita Ne.123
  • -āyatana the sense of touch DN.iii.243, DN.iii.280, DN.iii.290; Dhs.585, Dhs.613, Dhs.653, Dhs.783;
  • -indriya same DN.iii.239; Dhs.585 Dhs.613, Dhs.972;
  • -ujjukatā straightness of body (+ citta˚, of thought) Dhs.53, Dhs.277, Dhs.330; Vism.466; Bdhd 16, 20
  • -ūpaga going to a (new) body SN.ii.24;
  • -kamma “bodily action,” deed performed by the body in contradistinction to deeds by speech or thought (see above DN.i.250; DN.iii.191, DN.iii.245, DN.iii.279; MN.i.415; MN.iii.206; AN.i.104 AN.iii.6, AN.iii.9, AN.iii.141 sq.; AN.v.289; Thig.277; Pts.ii.195; Dhs.981 Dhs.1006; Vb.208, Vb.321, Vb.366; Pp.41; Bdhd 69; Dhs-a.68 Dhs-a.77, Dhs-a.344.
  • -kammaññatā wieldiness, alertness of the bodily senses included under nāmakāya Dhs.46, Dhs.277 Dhs.326.
  • -kammanta = ˚kamma, in comb. ˚sampatti and ˚sandosa AN.v.292, AN.v.294, AN.v.297; MN.i.17.
  • -kali “the misfortune of having a body” = this miserable body Thig.458, Thig.501; Thag-a.282, Thag-a.291;
  • -aṅga a limb of the body, kāy’angaṃ vāc’angaṃ vā na kopenti: they remain motionless and speechless (ref. to the bhikkhus begging) Ja.iii.354; Dhs-a.93, Dhs-a.240;
  • -gata “relating to the body, always combined with sati in the same sense as ˚anupassin (see above) SN.i.188; MN.iii.92; AN.i.44; Snp.340 (cp. Snp-a.343); Thag.468, Thag.1225; Ja.i.394; Dhp.293 Ne.39; Dhp.299; Mil.248, Mil.336, Mil.393; Vism.111, Vism.197 Vism.240 sq.
  • -gantha bodily tie or fetter (binding one to saṃsāra), of which there are four: abhijjhā, byāpāda sīlabbata-parāmāsa, idaṃ-saccâbhinivesa DN.iii.230; SN.v.59 = Dhs.1135 = Vb.374; cp. Mrs. Rh. D., Dhs trsl. p. 304;
  • -gandha spelling for ˚gantha at Ne.115 Ne.119;
  • -gutta one who guards his body, i.e. controls his action (+ vacīgutta) SN.i.172 = Snp.74;
  • -gutti the care or protection of the body Vin.i.295; Ja.ii.162;
  • -citta body and mind: ˚ābādha physical and mental disease Ja.iv.166; see other combinations above;
  • -ḍāha fever Vin.i.214;
  • -tapana chastisement of body, curbing one’s material desires, asceticism Pv-a.98.
  • -thāma physical strength Ja.iii.114;
  • -daratha bodily distress Ja.v.397 Ja.vi.295;
  • -daḷha bodily vigour Vin.ii.76, Vin.ii.313;
  • -dukkha bodily pain (+ ceto˚) MN.iii.288;
  • -duccarita misconduct by the body, evil deeds done through the instrumentality of the body (cp. ˚kamma) DN.iii.52, DN.iii.96, DN.iii.111, DN.iii.214; AN.i.48; Dhp.231; Iti.54, Iti.58; Dhs.300, Dhs.1305; Bdhd 16, 20
  • -duṭṭhulla unchastity Thag.114;
  • -dvāra the channel or outlet of bodily senses Ja.i.276; Ja.iv.14; Vv-a.73; Dhp-a.iv.85; Bdhd 69;
  • -dhātu the “element” of body, i.e. the faculty of touch, sensibility Dhs.613; Kv.12
  • -pakopa blameworthy conduct, misbehaviour (+ vacī˚ mano˚) Dhp.231 = Dhp-a.330;
  • -pacālaka (nt.) shaking or swaying the body, “swaggering” Vin.ii.213;
  • -paṭibaddha 1 adj. (of the breath), dependent on, or connected with the body SN.iv.293; attached or bound to the body Ja.iii.377; Ja.v.254; Ja.v.2. 2 an article of dress worn on the body Vin.iii.123, Vin.iv.214;
  • -payoga the instrumentality or use of the body DN-a.i.72 = Dhs-a.98
  • -pariyantika limited by the body, said of vedanā, sensation SN.v.320 = AN.ii.198;
  • -parihārika tending or protecting the body DN.i.71 = AN.ii.209 = Pp.58; Vism.65 (cīvara); DN-a.i.207;
  • -pasāda clearness of the sense of touch or sense in general Dhs-a.306; Bdhd 62, 66, 74 cp. Dhs. trsl. p. 173n, 198n;
  • -passaddhi serenity or quietude of the senses SN.iv.125 (cp. SN.iv.351 and above), SN.v.66, SN.v.104; Dhs.40, Dhs.277, Dhs.320; Dhs-a.130; Bdhd 16, 19 29;
  • -pāgabbhiya “body-forwardness” immodesty lasciviousness, gener. said of women Ja.ii.32; Ja.v.449
  • -pāgabbhiniya same Ja.i.288;
  • -pāguññatā good condition of the mental faculties, fitness of sense, opp. kāyagelañña apathy Dhs.46, Dhs.277, Dhs.326; Vism.466; Bdhd 16, 20, 157;
  • -phandita (nt.) bodily activity Ja.iii.25
  • -baddha fastened to the body, appl. to robes DN-a.i.207
  • -bandhana a girdle or waistband Vin.i.46, Vin.i.51; Vin.ii.118 Vin.ii.135, Vin.ii.177, Vin.ii.213, Vin.ii.266; MN.i.237;
  • -bala physical strength Pv-a.30;
  • -bhāvanā meditation or training with regard to action DN.iii.219; MN.i.237; cp. Mil.85;
  • -macchera “body-selfishness,” pampering the body Thag.1033
  • -mudutā pliability of sense = ˚kammaññatā Dhs.44 Dhs.277, Dhs.324; Bdhd 16, 20, 157;
  • -muni a sage with regard to action Iti.56;
  • -moneyya the true wisdom regarding the use of the body as an instrument of action Iti.56 Iti.67; DN.iii.220; AN.i.273; Cnd.514;
  • -ratha the “carriagelike” body Ja.vi.253;
  • -lahutā buoyancy of sense ˚muduta, same loci;
  • -vaṅka crookedness of action AN.i.112;
  • -vikāra change of position of the body Ja.iii.354
  • -vijambhana alertness Dhp-a.iv.113;
  • -viññatti intimation by body, i.e. merely by one’s appearance, appl chiefly to the begging bhikkhu Dhs.585, Dhs.636, Dhs.654, Dhs.844; Dhs-a.82, Dhs-a.301; Mil.229, Mil.230; Vism.448; Bdhd 69, 70
  • -viññāṇa consciousness by means of touch, sensory consciousness DN.iii.243; Dhs.556, Dhs.585, Dhs.651, Dhs.685, Dhs.790; Mil.59; Vb.180; ˚dhātu element of touch-consciousness Dhs.560; Vb.88; Kv.12;
  • -viññeyya to be perceived by the sense of touch (+ phoṭṭhabba, see above DN.i.245; DN.ii.281; DN.iii.234; MN.i.85, MN.i.144; Dhs.589, Dhs.967 Dhs.1095; Vb.14; Kv.210; Mil.270;
  • -vipphandana throbbing of the body, bodily suffusion, applied to ˚vinnatti Bdhd 69, 70; Dhs-a.323;
  • -viveka seclusion of the body, hermitism Ja.i.289; Dhs-a.165;
  • -vūpakāsa ˚viveka DN.iii.285 (+ citta˚ “singleness” of heart)
  • -veyyāvacca menial duties Ja.i.12; ˚kara a servant Ja.ii.334;
  • -veyyāvaṭika same Ja.vi.418; Snp.p.104; Dhp-a.i.27; ˚kamma id. Ja.v.317 (= veyyāvacca) Dhs-a.160;
  • -saṃsagga bodily contact, sexual intercourse Vin.iii.121, Vin.iii.190; Ja.vi.566;
  • -sakkhin he who has realized and gained the final truth concerning the body (cp ˚anupassin) DN.iii.105, DN.iii.254; MN.i.478 = Pp.14, Pp.29; MN.ii.113; MN.iii.45; AN.i.74; AN.i.118; AN.iv.10, AN.iv.451; AN.v.23; Pts.ii.52, Pts.ii.62; Ne.190; Kv.58; Vism.93, Vism.387.
  • -saṅkhāra the material aggregate, substratum of body Vin.iii.71; SN.ii.40; SN.iii.125; SN.iv.293; AN.i.122; AN.ii.158 AN.ii.231; Pts.i.184, Pts.i.186; Vism.530.
  • -saṅgaha control of body (+ citta˚) Ne.91;
  • -sañcetanā (-hetu) ground (for the rise of), material, i.e. impure thoughts AN.ii.157 Vism.530 (+ vacī˚, mano˚).
  • -samācāra (good) conduct as regards one’s actions DN.ii.279 (+ vacī˚) MN.i.272 sq. MN.ii.113; MN.iii.45; SN.v.354; AN.iii.186 sq.
  • -sampīlana crushing the body (of dukkha) Ne.29;
  • -samphassa the sense of touch (see āyatana) DN.iii.243; SN.v.351; Dhs.585, Dhs.616, Dhs.651, Dhs.684; ˚ja arisen through touch or sensibility DN.iii.244; Dhs.445, Dhs.558;
  • -sucarita good conduct in action, as one of the three ˚kammāni (vacī˚, mano˚ DN.iii.52, DN.iii.96, DN.iii.111, DN.iii.169, DN.iii.215; Iti.55, Iti.59, Iti.99, Dhs.1306
  • -suci purity of body, i.e. of action (+ vacī˚, ceto˚ AN.i.273; Iti.55;
  • -soceyya purification of body (+ vacī˚ mano˚) DN.iii.219; AN.i.271; AN.v.264, AN.v.266; Iti.55.

der. probably fr. ci, cinoti to heap up, cp. nikāya heaping up, accumulation or collection; Sk. kāya