Mano & Mana(s)
Like all other nouns of old s-stems mano has partly retained the s forms (cp cetah → ceto) & partly follows the a-declension. The form mano is found throughout in compounds as; mano˚; the other mana at the end of compounds as -mana. From stem manas an adj. manasa is formed and the der. mānasa & manassa; (-˚)
■ nom. mano freq.; & manaṃ Dhp.96
■ acc. mano Snp.270, Snp.388; Snp-a.11, and freq.; also manaṃ Snp.659 = AN.ii.3; AN.v.171 = Ne.132; Snp.678; Cp.i.8#5 Vism.466;
■ gen. dat. manaso Snp.470, Snp.967; Dhp.390 (manaso piya); Pv.ii.1#11 (manaso piya = manasā piya Pv-a.71);
■ instr. manasā Snp.330, Snp.365, Snp.834 (m. cintayanto) Snp.1030; MN.iii.179; Dhp.1; Pv.ii.9#7 (m. pi cetaye); also manena Dhp-a.i.42; Dhs-a.72;
■ abl. manato SN.iv.65; Dhp-a.i.23; Vism.466;
■ loc. manasmiṃ SN.iv.65; manamhi Vism.466; also mane Dhp-a.i.23, & manasi (see this in compound manasi karoti, below)
mind, thought DN.iii.96, DN.iii.102, DN.iii.206, DN.iii.226, DN.iii.244, DN.iii.269, DN.iii.281; SN.i.16 SN.i.172; SN.ii.94; MN.iii.55; AN.iii.443; AN.v.171; Snp.77, Snp.424, Snp.829 Snp.873; Dhp.116, Dhp.300; Sdhp.369.
- Mano represents the intellectual functioning of consciousness, while viñnāṇa represents the field of sense and sense-reaction (“perception”), and citta the subjective aspect of consciousness (cp. Mrs. Rh. D. Buddhist Psychology p. 19-The rendering with “mind” covers most of the connotation; sometimes it may be translated “thought. As “mind” it embodies the rational faculty of man which, as the subjective side in our relation to the objective world, may be regarded as a special sense, acting on the world, a sense adapted to the rationality (reasonableness, dhamma) of the phenomena, as our eye is adapted to the visibility of the latter. Thus it ranges as the 6th sense in the classification of the senses and their respective spheres (the āyatanāni or relations of subject and object, the ajjhattikāni & the bāhirāni see āyatana 3). These are: 1 cakkhu (eye) which deals with the sight of form (rūpa); 2 sota (ear dealing with the hearing of sound (sadda); 3 ghāna (nose) with the smelling of smells (gandha); 4 jivhā (tongue), with the tasting of tastes (rasa); 5 kāya (touch), with the touching of tangible objects (phoṭṭhabba); 6 mano, with the sensing (viññāya) of rational objects or cognisables (dhamma). Thus it is the sensus communis (Mrs. Rh. D. Buddh. Psych. 140 163) which recognises the world as a “mundus sensibilis” (dhamma). Both sides are an inseparable unity: the mind fits the world as the eye fits the light or in other words: mano is the counterpart of dhammā the subjective dh. Dhamma in this sense is the rationality or lawfulness of the Universe (see dhamma B. 1), Cosmic Order, Natural Law. It may even be taken quite generally as the “empirical. world” (as Geiger, e.g. interprets it in his Pali Dhamma p. 80–82 pointing out the substitution of vatthu for dhamma at Kv.126 sq. i.e. the material world), as the world of “things,” of phenomena in general without specification as regards sound, sight, smell, etc
■ Dhamma as counterpart of mano is rather an abstract (pluralistic representation of the world, i.e. the phenomena as such with a certain inherent rationality; manas is the receiver of these phenomena in their abstract meaning, it is the abstract sense, so to speak. Of course, to explain manas and its function one has to resort to terms of materiality, and thus it happens that the term vijānāti used of manas, is also used of the 5th sense, that of touch (to which mano is closely related, cp. our E expressions of touch as denoting rational, abstract processes: warm & cold; used figuratively; to grasp anything; terror-stricken; deeply moved feeling → Lat palpare to palpitate, etc.). We might say of the mind “sensing,” that manas “senses” (as a refined sense of touch) the “sensibility” (dhamma) of the objects, or as Cpd. 183 expresses it “cognizable objects.” See also kāya II.; and phassa.
- In Buddhist Psychological Logic the concept mano is often more definitely circumscribed by the addition of the terms (man-) āyatana (man-) indriya and (mano-) dhātu, which are practically all the same as mano (and its objective correspondent dhammā). Cp. also below No.(3). The additional terms try to give it the rank of a category of thought. On mano-dhātu and m-āyatana see also the discourse by S. Z. Aung. Cpd. 256–59, with Mrs. Rh. D.’s apt remarks on p. 259
■ The position of manas among the 6 āyatanas (or indriyas) is one of control over the other 5 (pure and simple senses). This is expressed e.g. at MN.i.295 (commented on at Dhs-a.72) and SN.v.217 (mano nesaṃ gocara-visayaṃ paccanubhoti: mano enjoys the function-spheres of the other senses; cp. Geiger Dhamma 81; as in the Sānkhya: Garbe, Sānkhya Philosophie 252 sq.). Cp. Vin.i.36; “ettha ca te mano na ramittha rūpesu saddesu atho rasesu.”
- As regards the relation of manas to citta, it may be stated that citta is more substantial (as indicated by translation “heart”), more elemental as the seat of emotion, whereas manas is the finer element, a subtler feeling or thinking as such. See also citta2 I., and on rel. to viññāṇa & citta see citta2 IV. 2b. In the more popular opinion and general phraseology however manas is almost synonymous with citta as opposed to body cittaṃ iti pi mano iti pi SN.ii.94. So in the triad “thought (i.e. intention) speech and action” manas interchanges with citta: see kāya III
■ The formula runs kāyena vācāya manasā, e.g. MN.iii.178 (sucaritaṃ caritvā) Dhp.391 (natthi dukkaṭaṃ), cp. Dhp.96; santaṃ tassa manaṃ, santā vācā ca kamma ca. Besides with citta kāyena vācāya uda cetasā SN.i.93, SN.i.102; AN.i.63. rakkhitena k. vācāya cittena SN.ii.231; SN.iv.112
■ It is further combined with citta in the scholastic (popular) definition of manas, found in identical words at all Cy. passages “mano” is “cittaṃ mano mānasaṃ hadayaṃ, paṇḍaraṃ man-āyatanaṃ… mano-viññāna-dhātu” (mind sensibility). Thus e.g. at Mnd.3 (for mano), Mnd.176 (id.) Cnd.494 (which however leaves out cittaṃ in exegesis of Snp.1142, Snp.1413, but has it in No. 495 in exegesis of Snp.1039); Dhs.6 (in defn of citta), Dhs.17 (of man’ indriyaṃ), Dhs.65 (of man-āyatanaṃ), Dhs.68 (of mano-viññṇa-dhātu). The close relation between the two appears further from their combination in the formula of the ādesanā-pāṭihāriyaṃ (wonder of manifestation, i.e. the discovery of other peoples’ thoughts & intentions), viz. evam pi te; mano ittham pi te mano iti pi te cittaṃ: “so & so is in your mind… so & so are your emotions”; DN.i.213 DN.iii.103 = AN.i.170
■ At SN.i.53 both are mutually influenced in their state of unsteadiness and fear: niccaṃ utrastaṃ idaṃ cittaṃ (heart), niccaṃ ubbiggaṃ idaṃ mano (mind). The same relation (citta as instrument or manifestation of mano) is evident from Ja.i.36, where the passage runs: sīho cittaṃ pasādesi. Satthā tassa manaṃ oloketva vyākāsi… At Pv-a.264 mano (of Pv.iv.7#1) is explained by cittaṃ; pīti mano of Snp.766 (glad of heart) explained at Snp-a.512 by santuṭṭha-citto; nibbānamanaso of Snp.942 at Snp-a.567 by nibbāna-ninna- citto In the phrase yathā-manena “from his heart,” i.e. sincerely, voluntarily Dhp-a.i.42, mano clearly acts as citta.
Phrases: manaṃ uppādeti to make up one’s mind, to resolve Dhp-a.ii.140 (cp. citt’ uppāda); manaṃ karoti:
- to fix one’s mind upon, to give thought to find pleasure or to delight in (loc.) Ja.iv.223 (rūpe na manaṃ kare = itthi-rūpe nimittaṃ na gaṇheyyāsi C Cp. the similar & usual manasi-karoti in same sense), Ja.vi.45 (Pass. gīte karute mano).
- to make up one’s mind Dhp-a.ii.87; manaṃ gaṃhāti to “take the mind, take the fancy, to please, to win approval Ja.iv.132; Dhp-a.ii.48
- -mana: dhamm-uddhacca-viggahita AN.ii.157 (read ˚mano for ˚manā); sankiliṭṭha-manā narā Thig.344; atta˚ pleased; gedhita˚; greedy Pv.ii.8#2 dum˚; depressed in mind, sad or sick at heart DN.ii.148; SN.i.103; Vin.i.21; AN.ii.59, AN.ii.61, AN.ii.198; Thig.484; Ja.i.189 opp. sumana elated, joyful Pv.ii.9#48 (= somanassajāta Pv-a.132); pīti˚; glad or joyful of heart Snp.766 (explained by tuṭṭha-mano, haṭṭha-mano, attamano etc at Mnd.3; by santuṭṭha-citto at Snp-a.512)
IV. manasi-karoti (etc.)
to fix the mind intently, to bear in mind, take to heart, ponder, think upon, consider recognise.
- (v.) pres. 1st pl. -karoma Vin.i.103 imper. 2nd sg. -karohi, often in formula “suṇāhi sādhukaṃ m-k.” “harken and pay attention” DN.i.124, DN.i.157, DN.i.249 cp. MN.i.7; AN.i.227; pl. 2nd -karotha AN.i.171; DN.i.214 (+ vitakketha); Pot. -kareyyātha DN.i.90 (taṃ atthaṃ sādhukaṃ k.); ppr. -karonto Dhs-a.207; ger. -katvā AN.ii.116 (aṭṭhikatvā + … ohitasoto suṇāti); Pv.iii.2#5 (a˚ = anāvajjetvā Pv-a.181); Vv-a.87, Vv-a.92; Pv-a.62; grd. -kātabba Vism.244, Vism.278; Dhs-a.205; aor manas-ākāsi MN.ii.61; 2nd pl. (Prohib.) (mā) manasākattha DN.i.214; AN.i.171. Pass. manasi -karīyati Vism.284.
- (n.) manasikāra attention, pondering, fixed thought (cp. Cpd. 12, 28, 40, 282) DN.iii.104, DN.iii.108 sq. DN.iii.112, DN.iii.227 (yoniso), DN.iii.273 (ayoniso); MN.i.296; SN.ii.3 (cetanā phasso m.); SN.iv.297 (sabba-nimittānaṃ a˚ inattention to all outward signs of allurement); Mnd.501 (ayoniso) Vb.320, Vb.325, Vb.373 (yoniso), Vb.425; Vism.241 (paṭikūla˚) Vb-a.148 (ayoniso), Vb-a.248 sq. (as regards the 32 ākāras), Vb-a.251 (paṭikkūla˚), Vb-a.255 (n’âtisīghato etc.), Vb-a.270 (ayoniso) Vb-a.500; Dhp-a.ii.87 (paṭikkula˚); Dhs-a.133
■ sammā manasikāraṃ anvāya by careful pondering DN.i.13, DN.i.18≈ As adj. (thoughtful) at Thag-a.273
■ The defn of m. at Vism.466 runs as follows: “kiriyā-kāro, manamhi kāro m. purima-manato visadisaṃ manaṃ karotī ti pi m Svāyaṃ: ārammaṇa-paṭipādako vīthi-paṭipādako javana-p.˚ ti ti-ppakāro.”-compounds: -kusalatā proficiency in attention DN.iii.211; -kosalla id. Vb-a.56 (in detail), Vb-a.224, Vb-a.226 sq.; Vism.241 (tenfold), Vism.243 (id., viz anupubbato, nâtisīghato, nâtisāṇikato etc.); Pv-a.63 (yoniso˚); -vidhāna arrangement of attention Vb-a.69, Vb-a.71; -vidhi rule or form of attention Vism.278 (eightfold, viz. gaṇanā, anubandhanā, phusanā, ṭhapanā sallakhaṇā, vivaṭṭanā, pārisuddhi, tesañ ca paṭipassanā ti)
■ The composition form of manas is mano˚ except before vowels, when man’ takes its place (as man-āyatana Vb-a.46 sq.).
-aṅgaṇa (man˚) sphere of ideation (Dhs. trsl. § 58; DN.iii.243, DN.iii.280 and passim. -āvajjana representative cognition: Cpd. 59. -indriya (man˚) mind-faculty category of mind, faculty of ideation (cp. Dhs. trs. § 17; Cpd. pp. 183, 184) DN.i.70 (with other senses cakkh-undriyaṃ etc.), DN.iii.226, and passim. -kamma work of the mind, mental action, associated with kāyakamma (bodily action) and vacī˚ (vocal action) AN.i.32 AN.i.104; Pp.41; Dhs.981 (where omitted in text). -java [cp. Vedic manojava] swift as thought Vv.63#29; Pv-a.216 (assājāniya). -daṇḍa “mind-punishment” (? corresponding to kāya˚ & vacī-daṇḍa, MN.i.372 sq (Neumann, trsls “Streich in Gedanken”). -duccarita sin of the mind or thoughts Dhp.233; Mnd.386; Pp.60 -dosa blemish of mind AN.i.112. -dvāra door of the mind, threshold of consciousness Vb-a.41; Dhs-a.425 cp. Dhs. trsl. 3 (2p. 2); Cpd. 10. -dhātu element of apprehension, the ideational faculty (cp. Dhs. trsl. 129 2p. 119, 120; and p. 2lxxxv sq.) Dhs.457 sq.; Vb.14, Vb.71, Vb.87 sq., Vb.144, Vb.302; Vism.488; Vb-a.80, Vb-a.81, Vb-a.239 (physiological foundation), Vb-a.405; Dhs-a.263, Dhs-a.425 Kp-a.53. -padosa anger in mind, ill-will DN.iii.72; MN.i.377; Snp.702; Ja.iv.29; Dhs.1060 (cp. Dhs-a.367 manaṃ padussayamāno uppajjatī ti, i.e. to set one’s heart at anger). -padosika (adj.) debauched in mind (by envy & ill-will), Name of a class of gods DN.i.20; Vb-a.498, Vb-a.519. Cp. Kirfel, Kosmographie, p. 193 & Kern (
i.163), slightly different: from looking at each other too long. -pasāda tranquillity of the mind devotional feeling (towards the Buddha) Dhp-a.i.28 -pubbaṅgama directed by mind, dominated by thought (see pubba2) Dhp.1, Dhp.2; cp. Dhp-a.i.21, Dhp-a.i.35. -bhāvanīya of right mind-culture, self-composed SN.iii.1; MN.iii.261; Vv.34#13 (cp. Vv-a.152: mana-vaḍḍhanaka); Mil.129 Kern,
i.163 trsls “to be kept in mind with honour.” -mattaka, in phrase mana-mattakena (adv. “by mere mind,” consisting of mind only, i.e. memorial as a matter of mind Ja.iv.228. -maya made of mind consisting of mind, i.e. formed by the magic power of the mind, magically formed, explained at Vism.405 as “adhiṭṭhāna-manena nimmitattā m.”; at DN-a.i.120 as “jhāna-manena nibbatta”; at Dhp-a.i.23 as “manato nipphanna”; at Vv-a.10 as “bāhirena paccayena vinā manasā va nibbatta.”- Dhp.1, Dhp.2; Ja.vi.265 (manomayaṃ sindhavaṃ abhiruyha); Sdhp.259; as quality of iddhi: Vism.379, Vism.406
■ Sometimes a body of this matter can be created by great holiness or knowledge human beings or gods may be endowed with this power DN.i.17 (+ pītibhakkha, of the Ābhassaras), DN.i.34 (attā dibbo rūpī m. sabbanga-paccangī etc.), DN.i.77 (id.), DN.i.186 (id.); Vin.ii.185 (Koliya-putto kālaṃ kato aññataraṃ mano-mayaṃ kāyaṃ upapanno); MN.i.410 (devā rūpino m.); SN.iv.71; AN.i.24; AN.iii.122, AN.iii.192; AN.iv.235 AN.v.60. -ratha desired object (lit. what pleases the mind), wish Vism.506 (˚vighāta + icchā- vighāta); -ṃ pūreti to fulfil one’s wish Mhvs.8, Mhvs.27 (puṇṇa-sabbamanoratha). Manoratha-pūraṇī (f.) “the wish fulfiller” is the name of the Commentary on the Anguttara Nikāya. -rama pleasing to the mind, lovely, delightful Snp.50, Snp.337, Snp.1013; Dhp.58; Pv.ii.9#58 (phoṭṭhabba), Mhvs.18, Mhvs.48; Vv-a.340. -viññāṇa representative cognition rationality Vism.489; Vb-a.150 (22 fold); Dhs-a.304 cp. Dhs. trsl. 170 (2p. 157); -dhātu (element of) representative intellection, mind cognition, the 6th of the viññāṇadhātus or series of cognitional elements corresponding to and based on the 12 simple dhātus, which are the external & internal sense-relations (= āyatanāni) Dhs.58; Vb.14, Vb.71, Vb.87, Vb.89, Vb.144, Vb.176 and passim. See also above II. 3 and discussions at Dhs. trsl. 132 (2p. 122); introd. p. 53 sq.; Cpd. 1232, 184. -viññeyya to be comprehended by the mind (cp. Dialogues ii.281n) DN.ii.281; MN.iii.55, MN.iii.57; Ja.iv.195. -vitakka a thought (of mind SN.i.207 = Snp.270 (mano is in C. on this passage explained as “kusala-citta” Snp-a.303). -sañcetan’ āhāra “nutriment of representative cogitation” (Dhs. trsl. 31; SN.ii.11, SN.ii.13, SN.ii.99; Dhs.72; Vism.341. -satta “with mind attached,” Name of certain gods, among whom are reborn those who died with minds absorbed in some attachment MN.i.376. -samācāra conduct, observance, habit of thought or mind (associated with kāya˚ & vacī˚ MN.ii.114; MN.iii.45, MN.iii.49. -silā (cp. Sk. manaḥ-śila) red arsenic, often used as a powder for dying and other purposes; the red colour is frequently found in later (Cy.) literature, e.g. Ja.v.416 (+ haritāla yellow ointment); Vism.485; Dhp-a.iv.113 (id. as cuṇṇa); Thag-a.70 (Tha-ap.20); Mhvs.29, Mhvs.12; Snp-a.59 (˚piṇḍa in simile) Dhp-a.ii.43 (˚rasa); Vv-a.288 (˚cuṇṇa-pịñjara-vaṇṇa of ripe mango fruit); Pv-a.274 (˚vaṇṇāni ambaphalāni) -tala a flat rock, platform (= silātala) Snp-a.93, Snp-a.104; as the platform on which the seat of the Buddha is placed & whence he sends forth the lion’s roar: Ja.ii.219 Ja.vi.399; Vv-a.217; as a district of the Himavant Ja.vi.432; Snp-a.358. -hara charming, captivating beautiful Mhvs.18, Mhvs.49; Name of a special gem (the wishing gem?) Mil.118, Mil.354.
Vedic manaḥ, see etym. under maññati