expletive-emphatic particle, often used in comparative-indefinite sense just so, like this, as if, as (see cana & canaṃ) Ja.v.339 (Com. cttha na-kāro upamāne). Also as naṃ (cp. cana → canaṃ) Vin.ii.81, Vin.ii.186 (kathaṃ naṃ = kathaṃ nu); Ja.ii.416; Ja.v.302; (Com. p. 216: ettha eko na-karo pucchanattho hoti); Thag.1204; Mil.177. Perhaps at Snp.148 (kattha-ci naṃ, variant reading BB na; but Com. Kp-a.247 etaṃ). To this na belongs na3; see also nu & nanu.

Sk. na (in cana) & nā (in nānā, vi-nā) Idg. pron. base *no, cp. Gr.; νή, ναί; Lat. nē, nae surely, also encl. in ego-ne & in question utruṃne, nam; fuller form *eno as in Sk. anā (adv.) anena, anayā (instr. pron. 3rd) Gr. ε ̓́νη “that day”; Lat. enim


negātive & adversative particle “not” (Cnd.326: paṭikkhepa; Kp-a.170 paṭisedhe)

  1. often apostr. n’: n’ atthi, n’ etaṃ etc.; or contracted: nāhaṃ, nāpi etc., or with cuphonic consonant y: nayidaṃ (Iti.29, Ja.iv.3), nayidha (Iti.36, Iti.37) nayimaṃ (Iti.15) etc. As double negation implying emphatic affirmation: na kiñci na all, everything Ja.i.295.
  2. In disjunctive clauses: na… na neither-nor, so-or not so. In question: karoti na karoti (“or not”) Ja.ii.133. Cp. in same use. Often with added pi (api) in second part: na-nāpi neither-nor (“not-but also not”) SN.ii.65; MN.i.246; Pv.i.11#9.
  3. In syntactic context mostly emphasized by var. negative & adversative particles, viz.; nāpi (see under 2); n’ eva indeed not, not for all that Ja.iii.55; or not Kp-a.219; n’ eva-na neither-nor DN.i.33, DN.i.35; MN.i.486; AN.v.193; Ja.i.207, Ja.i.279; Vin.ii.185; Dhp-a.i.328; Dhp-a.ii.65; DN-a.i.186, DN-a.i.188; n’ eva-na pana id. DN.i.24; na kho not indeed Ja.ii.134; na ca but not (= this rather than that Ja.i.153; na tāva = na kho Vv.37#13; na nu (in quest. noune) is it not? Pv-a.74, Pv-a.136; na no surely not Snp.224 na hi [cp. Gr. ούξί not at all; ναίξι certainly] certainly not Dhp.5, Dhp.184; Snp.666; Kp.vii.6; na hi jātu id. Snp.152-See also nu, nū, no.
  4. na is also used in the function of the negative prefix a-(an-) in cases where the word-negation was isolated out of a sentence negation or where a negated verb was substantified, e.g. (a) nacira (= acira) short, napparūpa abundant, napuṃsaka neuter, neka (= aneka) several; (b) natthi, natthika etc. (q.v.).

Ved. na = Idg. *ně; Lat. ne in n’ unquam etc., Goth. ni; Sk. na ca = Lat. neque = Goth. nih. Also Sk. nā Idg. *nē, cp. Lat. Goth. nē


base of demonstr. pron. 3rd pers. (= ta˚), only in foll. cases: acc. sg. naṃ (mostly enclitic) fuller form enaṃ him, her, that one etc. Snp.139, Snp.201, Snp.385 Snp.418, Snp.980, Snp.1076; Iti.32; Dhp.42, Dhp.230; Ja.i.152, Ja.i.172, Ja.i.222 Ja.iii.281; Kp-a.220; Dhp-a.i.181; Dhp-a.iii.173; Pv-a.3, Pv-a.68, Pv-a.73.

acc. pl. ne them Iti.110 (variant reading te); Snp.223 (= te manusse Kp-a.169); Ja.ii.417; Ja.iii.204; Ja.v.458; Dhp-a.i.8 Dhp-a.i.13, Dhp-a.i.61, Dhp-a.i.101, Dhp-a.i.390; Vv-a.299
■ gen. dat. pl. nesaṃ DN.i.175, DN.i.191; Iti.63; Ja.i.153; Dhp-a.iv.41; Vv-a.37, Vv-a.136. Pv-a.54, Pv-a.201, Pv-a.207. See also cna; cp. nava2.

identical with na1