plough SN.i.115; SN.iii.155; AN.iii.64; Snp.77 (yuga˚ yoke & plough); Snp.p.13; Ja.i.57; Thig.441 (= sīra Thag-a.270); Snp-a.146; Vv-a.63 Vv-a.65; Pv-a.133 (dun˚ hard to plough); Dhp-a.i.223 (aya˚), Dhp-a.iii.67 (id.).
- -īsā the beam of a plough SN.i.104 (of an elephant’s trunk);
- -kaṭṭhakaraṇa ploughing SN.v.146 = Ja.ii.59
- -phāla [mod. Ind. phār] ploughshare (to be understood as Dvandva) Dhp-a.i.395.
Ved. lāngala; nangala by dissimilation through subsequent nasal, cp. Milinda → Menandros Etym. unknown, prob. dialectical (already in RV iv. 574), because unconnected with other Aryan words for plough. Cp. Balūčī nangār