indeclinable directional prefix of forward motion, in applied sense often emphasising the action as carried on in a marked degree or even beyond its mark (cp. Ger. ver-in its function of Goth. fra Ger. vor). Thus the sphere of pa-may be characterised in foll. applications:

  1. forth, forward, out: papatati fall forward, i.e. down; ˚neti bring forth (to); ˚gaṇhāti hold out; ˚tharati spread forth; ˚dhāvati run out ˚bajati go forth; ˚sāreti stretch out; etc.
  2. (intensive in a marked degree, more than ordinarily (cp. E. up in cut up, heap up, fill up; thus often to be trsld by “up,” or “out,” or “about”): pakopeti up-set ˚chindati cut up; ˚bhañjati break up; ˚cinati heap up ˚kiṇṇaka scattered about; ˚nāda shouting out; ˚bhāti shine forth; ˚bhavati grow up, prevail; ˚dūseti spoil entirely; ˚jahati give up entirely; ˚tapeti make shine exceedingly (C. ativiya dīpeti); ˚jalati blaze up; ˚jānāti know well
    ■ In this meaning often with adjectives like patanu very thin; ˚thaddha quite stiff; ˚dakkhiṇa right in pre-eminence; ˚bala very strong.
  3. “onward” paṭṭhāya from… onward; pavattati move on; fig “further, later”: paputta a later (secondary) son, i.e. grandson.
  4. “in front of,” “before”: padvāra before the door.
  5. Sometimes in trs. (reflexive) use like pakūjin singing out to (each other, cp Ger. besingen an-rufen)

■ The most frequent combination with other (modifying) prefixes is sam-ppa; its closest relatives (in meaning 2 especially) are ā and pari. The double (assimilation) p is restored after short vowels, like appadhaṃsiya (a + pa˚).

Ved. pra, Idg. *pro, cp. Gr. πρό, Lat. pro, Goth. fra, Lith. pra, prō, Oir. ro-


adjective drinking; only in foll. compounds dhenu˚ drinking of the cow, suckling calf MN.i.79; Snp.26 (= dhenuṃ pivanto Snp-a.39); - pāda˚; a tree (lit. drinking with its feet, cp. expln at Pv-a.251 “pādasadisehi mūl âvayavehi udakassa pivanato pādapo ti”) Pv.iv.3#9- majja˚; drinking intoxicants Snp.400; Pv.iv.1#77 (a˚).

Cp. Ved. ˚pa, adj. base of to drink, as ˚ga fr. gam or ˚ṭha fr. sthā