indeclinable directional prefix in well-defined meaning of “back (to), against towards, in opposition to, opposite.” As preposition (with acc. and usually postponed) towards, near by, at usually spelt pati (cp. sampati & sampaṭika) Snp.291 (?), Snp.425 (Nerañjaram (pati); Thag.628 (suriyass’ uggamanam p.); Thag.2, Thag.258 (abhiyobbanam p.), Thag.306 (Nerañjaram p.); Ja.i.457 (paṭi suriyaṃ thatvā standing facing the sun); Ja.iv.93;; Pv.ii.9#41 (suriy’ uggamanam p.); Mil.116 (dānam p.); Pv-a.154 (paṭi Gangaṃ against the G.)
■ Most freq. combinations are: paṭi + ā (patiyā˚) patisaṃ˚; vi + paṭi˚, sampaṭi˚. The composition (assimilation-) form before vowels is pacc˚; (b. v.)


I. (lit.)

“back,” in the sense of:

  1. against, in opposition (opp. anu, see below III.), contrary: viz

    1. often with the implication of a hostile attack (anti-against): ˚kaṇṭaka, ˚kosati (re-ject), ˚kūla, ˚khipati (re-fuse, op-pose), ˚gha, ˚codeti (re-prove), thambhati ˚disā, ˚deseti, ˚pakkha, ˚patha, ˚piṃsati, ˚pīḷita, ˚magga ˚manteti, ˚yodha (at-tack), ˚vacana (re-ply), ˚vadati ˚vedeti, ˚sattu (enemy), ˚suṇāti, ˚hata
    2. warding off, protecting against (counter-, anti-): ˚kara (antidote), ˚sedhati (ward-off)
    3. putting against, setting off in a comparison (counter-, rival): ˚puggala (one’s equal), ˚purisa (rival), ˚bala (adequate), ˚bimba (counterpart), ˚bhāga (id.); ˚malla (rival wrestler) ˚sama, ˚sāsana, ˚sūra, ˚seṭṭha
    4. close contact (against, be-): ˚kujjita (covered), ˚gādha, ˚channa (“be-deckt”) ˚vijjhana
  2. in return, in exchange (in revenge) ˚akkosati, ˚āneti, ˚katheti, ˚karoti, ˚kūṭa1 ˚kkamati, ˚khamāpeti, ˚gāti (sing in response), ˚gīta ˚daṇḍa (retribution), ˚dadāti, ˚dāna, ˚nivāsana, ˚paṇṇa (in reply), ˚pasaṃsati, ˚piṇḍa, ˚pucchati (ask in return) ˚māreti (kill in revenge), ˚bhaṇḍa (goods in exchange) ˚bhaṇḍati (abuse in return) ˚rodana, ˚roseti, ˚vera (revenge), ˚sammodeti, ˚sātheyya

  3. (temporal again, a second time (re-): ˚dasseti (re-appear), ˚nijjhatta, ˚nivattati, ˚pavesati, ˚pākatika (re-stored) ˚bujjhati, ˚vinicchinati, ˚sañjīvita (re-suscitated) ˚sandhi (re-incarnation), ˚sammajjati

  4. away from back to (esp. in compound paṭivi˚): ˚kuṭati (shrink back) ˚ghāta (repulsion), ˚dhāvati, ˚neti, ˚paṇāmeti (send away), ˚bandhati (hold back), ˚bāhati (id.), ˚vijacchati ˚vineti, ˚vinodeti (drive out), ˚virata, ˚saṃharati, ˚sallīna, ˚sutta, ˚sumbhita

II. (applied, in reflexive sense):

  1. to, on to, up to, towards, at-: ˚oloketi (look at), ˚gijjha (hankering after) ˚ggaha, ˚jānāti ˚pūjeti ˚peseti (send out to), ˚baddha (bound to), ˚bhaya ˚yatta, ˚rūpa, ˚laddha, ˚labhati (at-tain), ˚lābha, ˚lobheti, ˚sāmeti, ˚sevati (go after), ˚ssata.
  2. together (con-, com-), esp. combined with -saṃ˚; ˚saṃyujati ˚passaddha, ˚maṇḍita, ˚sankharoti, ˚santhāra
  3. asunder, apart (“up”): ˚kopeti (shake up), ˚viṃsa (part), ˚vibhatta (divided up). (4) secondary, complementary by-, sham (developed out of meaning I 1.c.): ˚nāsikā (a false nose), ˚sīsaka (sham top knot) esp. freq. in redupl. (iterative) compounds, like anga-paccanga (limb & by-limb, i.e. all kinds of limbs), vata-paṭivatta (duties & secondary duties, all duties). In the latter application paṭi resembles the use of ā, which is more frequent (see ā5)


The opposite of pati in directional meaning is anu, with which it is freq. combined either (a) in neg. contrast or (b) in positive emphasis e.g.

  1. anuvātaṃ paṭivātaṃ with and against the wind anuloma + paṭiloma with and against the grain; ˚sotaṃ w. & against the stream.
  2. anumasati paṭimasati to touch cloesly (lit. up & down)

Note. The spelling pati for paṭi occurs frequently without discrimination it is established in the combination with st (as patiṭṭhāti patiṭṭhita etc.). All cases are enumerated under the respective form of paṭi˚, with the exception of patiṭṭh˚ Pati-aneti

Ved, prati, to Idg. *preti as in Lat. pretium (fr. *pretios)“ price“ (cp. precious), i.e. equivalent; Gr. πρές (aeol.), προτί against