“arising on the grounds of (a preceding cause)” happening by way of cause working of cause & effect, causal chain of causation causal genesis, dependent origination, theory of the twelve causes
■ See on this Mrs. Rh. D. in Buddhism 90 f., Ency. Rel. & Ethics s. v. & KS ii., preface Cpd. p. 260 sq. with diagram of the “Wheel of Life” Pts. of Controversy, 390 f
■ The general formula runs thus: Imasmiṃ sati, idaṃ hoti, imass’ uppādā, idaṃ uppajjati; imasmiṃ asati, idaṃ na hoti; imassa nirodhā, idaṃ nirujjhati. This being, that becomes from the arising of this, that arises; this not becoming, that does not become: from the ceasing of this, that ceases MN.ii.32; SN.ii.28 etc. The term usually occurs applied to dukkha in a famous formula which expresses the Buddhist doctrine of evolution, the respective stages of which are conditioned by a preceding cause & constitute themselves the cause of resulting effect, as working out the next state of the evolving (shall we say) “individual” or “being,” in short the bearer of evolution. The respective links in this chain which to study & learn is the first condition for a “Buddhist” to an understanding of life, and the cause of life, and which to know forward and backward (anuloma-paṭilomaṃ manas’ âkāsi Vin.i.1) is indispensable for the student, are as follows. The root of all primary cause of all existence, is avijjā ignorance; this produces saṅkhārā: karma, dimly conscious elements capacity of impression or predisposition (will, action Cpd.; synergies Mrs. Rh. D.), which in their turn give rise to viññāṇa thinking substance (consciousness Cpd.; cognition Mrs. Rh. D.), then follow in succession the foll. stages: nāmarūpa individuality (mind & body animated organism Cpd.; name & form Mrs. Rh. D.); saḷāyatana the senses (6 organs of sense Cpd.; the sixfold sphere Mrs. Rh. D.), phassa contact, vedanā feeling, taṇhā thirst for life (craving), upādāna clinging to existence or attachment (dominant idea Cpd.; grasping Mrs. Rh. D.), bhava (action or character Cpd.; renewed existence Mrs. Rh. D.), jāti birth (rebirth conception Cpd.), jarāmaraṇa (+ soka-parideva-dukkhadomanass’ ûpayāsā) old age & death (+ tribulation grief, sorrow, distress & despair). The BSk. form is pratītya-samutpāda, e.g. at Divy.300, Divy.547.
The Paṭicca-samuppāda is also called the Nidāna (“basis,” or “ground,” i.e. cause) doctrine, or the Paccay’ ākāra (“related-condition”), and is referred to in the Suttas as Ariya-ñāya (“the noble method or system”). The term paccay’ ākāra is late and occurs only in Abhidhamma-literature
■ The oldest account is found in the Mahāpadāna Suttanta of the Dīgha Nikāya (DN.ii.30 sq.; cp. Dial. ii.24 sq.), where 10 items form the constituents of the chain, and are given in backward order, reasoning from the appearance of dukkha in this world of old age and death towards the original cause of it in viññāṇa. The same chain occurs again at SN.ii.104 sq
■ A later development shows 12 links, viz. avijjā and saṅkhārā added to precede viññāṇa (as above). Thus at SN.ii.5 sq
■ A detailed exposition of the PS. in Abhidhamma literature is the exegesis given by Bdhgh at Vism xvii. (pp. 517–586 under the title of Paññā-bhūmi-niddesa), and at Vb-a.130–Vb-a.213 under the title of Paccayākāra-vibhanga. Some passages selected for ref.: Vin.i.1 sq.; MN.i.190 MN.i.257; SN.i.136; SN.ii.1 sq., SN.ii.26 sq., SN.ii.42 sq., SN.ii.70, SN.ii.92 sq., SN.ii.113 sq. AN.i.177; AN.v.184; Snp.653; Ud.1 sq.; Pts.i.50 sq.; Pts.i.144, Ne.22, Ne.24, Ne.32, Ne.64 sq.; DN-a.i.125, DN-a.i.126.
- -kusala skilled in the (knowledge of the) chain of causation MN.iii.63; Mnd.171; f. abstr. -kusalatā DN.iii.212.
p. + samuppāda, BSk. prātītyasamutpāda, e.g. Divy.300, Divy.547