1. (lit.) a gem, jewel Vv-a.321 (not = ratana2, as Hardy in Index) Pv-a.53 (nānāvidhāni)
    ■ The 7 ratanas are enumerated under veḷuriya (Mil.267). They are (the precious minerals) suvaṇṇa, rajata, muttā, maṇi, veḷuriya vajira, pavāḷa. (So at Abhp.490.) These 7 are said to be used in the outfit of a ship to give it more splendour: Ja.ii.112. The 7 (unspecified) are mentioned at Thig.487 (satta ratanāni vasseyya vuṭṭhimā “all seven kinds of gems”); and at Dhp-a.i.274, where it is said of a ratana-maṇḍapa that in it there were raised flags “sattaratana-mayā.” On ratana in similes see J.P.T.S. 1909, 127.

  2. (fig.) treasure, gem of (-˚) Snp.836 (etādisaṃ r. = dibb’ itthi-ratana Snp-a.544); Mil.262 (dussa˚ a very fine garment)
    ■ Usually as a set of 7 valuables, belonging to the throne (the empire) of a (world-) king. Thus at DN.ii.16 sq.; of Mahā-Sudassana DN.ii.172 sq. They are enumerated singly as follows: the wheel (cakka) DN.ii.172 sq., the elephant (hatthi, called Uposatha) DN.ii.174, DN.ii.187, DN.ii.197; the horse (assa, Valāhaka) ibid.; the gem (maṇi) DN.ii.175, DN.ii.187; the woman (itthi) ibid.; the treasurer (gahapati) DN.ii.176, DN.ii.188 the adviser (pariṇāyaka) ibid. The same 7 are enumerated at DN.i.89; Snp.p.106; DN-a.i.250; also at Ja.iv.232, where their origins (homes) are given as: cakka˚ out of Cakkadaha; hatthi from the Uposatha-race; assa˚ from the clan of Valāhassarāja, maṇi˚ from Vepulla, and the last 3 without specification. See also remarks on gahapati. Kern,


    s. v. ratana suspects the latter to be originally “major domus” (cp. his attributes as “wealthy” at Mvu.i.108). As to the exact meaning of pariṇāyaka he is doubtful, which mythical tradition has obscured
    ■ The 7 (moral) ratanas at SN.ii.217; SN.iii.83 are probably the same as are given in detail at Mil.336, viz. the 5: sīla˚, samādhi˚, paññā˚, vimutti˚ vimutti-ñāṇadassana (see [given under the collective name sīla-kkhandha or dhamma-kkhandha](/define/given under the collective name sīla-kkhandha or dhamma-kkhandha)), to which are added the 2: paṭisambhidā˚ & bojjhanga˚. These 7 are probably meant at Pv-a.66, where it is said that Sakka “endowed their house with the 7 jewels” (sattar- bharitaṃ katvā)
    ■ Very frequent is a Triad of Gems (ratana-ttaya), consisting of Dhamma, Sangha, Buddha or the Doctrine, the Church and the Buddha [cp. BSk ratna-traya Divy.481], e.g. Mhvs.5, Mhvs.81; Vb-a.284; Vv-a.123; Pv-a.1, Pv-a.49, Pv-a.141.

  • -ākara a pearl-mine, a mine of precious metals Thag.1049; Ja.ii.414; Ja.vi.459; Dpvs.i.18.
  • -kūṭa a jewelled top Dhp-a.i.159.
  • -paliveṭhana a wrapper for a gem or jewel Pp.34.
  • -vara the best of gems Snp.683 (= vararatana-bhūta Snp-a.486).
  • -sutta the Suttanta of the (3) Treasures (viz. Dhamma, Sangha, Buddha), representing Sutta Nipāta ii.1 (P.T.S. ed. pp. 39–42), mentioned as a parittā at Vism.414 (with 4 others) and at Mil.150 (with 5 others), cp. Kp-a.63; Snp-a.201.

cp. Vedic ratna, gift; the BSk. form is ratna (Divy.26) as well as ratana (Avs.ii.199)


a linear measure (which Abhp p.23 gives as equal to 12 angula or 7 ratanas = 1 yaṭṭhi: see Kirfel, Kosmographie, p.335. The same is given by Bdhgh. at Vb-a.343 dve vidatthiyo ratanaṃ; satta r. yaṭṭhi) Ja.v.36 (vīsaṃr-sataṃ); Ja.vi.401 (˚mattaṃ); Vv-a.321 (so given by Hardy in Index as “measure of length,” but to be taken as ratana1, as indicated clearly by context & C.); Mil.282 (satta-patiṭṭhito aṭṭha-ratan’ ubbedho nava-ratan āyāma-pariṇāho pāsādiko dassanīyo Uposatho nāgarājā: alluding to ratana1 2!).

most likely = Sk. aratni: see ratani