1. fight, battle; only in Thig.360 (raṇaṃ karitvā kāmānaṃ): see discussed below; also late at Mhvs.35, Mhvs.69 (Subharājaṃ raṇe hantvā).
  2. intoxication, desire, sin, fault. This meaning is the Buddhist development of Vedic raṇa enjoyment. Various influences have played a part in determining the meaning & its expln in the scholastic terms of the dogmatists and exegetics. It is often explained as pāpa or rāga. The Ṭīkā on Dhs-a.50 (see Expos. 67) gives the foll. explains (late & speculative)
    1. = reṇu, dust or mist of lust etc.
    2. fight, war (against the Paths).
    3. pain, anguish & distress

The translation (Expos. 67) takes raṇa as “cause of grief,” or “harm”, hence araṇa “harmless” and saraṇa “harmful” (the latter trsld as “concomitant with war” by Dhs. trsl. of Dhs.1294; and asaraṇa as opp. “not concomitant” doubtful). At SN.i.148 (rūpe raṇaṃ disvā) it is almost syn. with raja. Bdhgh. explains this passage (see K.S. 320) as “rūpamhi jāti-jarā-bhanga-sankhātaṃ dosaṃ, translation (K.S. 186): “discerning canker in visible objects material.”

The term is not sufficiently cleared yet. At Thig.358 we read “(kāmā) appassādā raṇakarā sukkapakkha-visosanā,” and Thig.360 reads “raṇaṃ karitvā kāmānaṃ.” Thag-a.244 explains Thig.358 by “rāg’ ādi sambandhanato”; Thig.360 by “kāmānaṃ raṇaṃ te ca mayā kātabbaṃ ariyamaggaṃ sampahāraṃ katvā.” The first is evidently “grief,” the second “fight,” but the translation (Sisters 145) gives “stirring strife” for Thig.358, and “fight with worldly lusts” for Thig.360; whereas Kern


s. v. raṇakara gives “causing sinful desire” as trsl.

The word araṇa (see araṇa2) was regarded as neg of raṇa in both meanings (1 & 2); thus either “freedom fr. passion” or “not fighting.” The translation of Dhs-a.50 (Expos. 67) takes it in a slightly diff. sense as “harmless” (i.e. having no grievous causes)
■ At MN.iii.235 araṇa is a quâsi summing up of “adukkha an-upaghāta anupāyāsa etc.,” and saraṇa of their positives. Here a meaning like “harmfulness” & “harmlessness” seems to be fitting. Other passages of araṇa see under araṇa.

  • -jaha (raṇañjaha) giving up desires or sin, leaving causes of harmfulness behind. The expression is old and stereotype. It has caused trouble among interpreters: Trenckner would like to read raṇañjaya “victorious in battle” (Note. 83). It is also Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit e.g. Lal.50;.Avs ii.131 ‣See Speyer’s note 3 on this page. He justifies translation “pacifier, peace-maker”. At following passages: SN.i.52 (translation “quitting corruption”) Iti.108 (Seidenstücker translates: “dem Kampfgewühl entronnen”) Mil.21 Netti.54; Sdhp.493 Sdhp.569

Vedic raṇa, both “enjoyment,” and “battle.” The Dhtp (115) only knows of ran as a sound-base saddatthā (= Sk. ran2 to tinkle)