indeclinable prefix, implying conjunction & completeness; saṃ˚; is after vi˚; (19’) the most frequent (16’) of all Pāli prefixes. Its primary meaning is “together” (cp. Lat. con˚); hence arises that of a closer connection or a more accentuated action than that expressed by the simple verb (intensifying = thoroughly quite), or noun. Very often merely pleonastic, esp. in combination with other prefixes (e.g. sam-anu˚, sam-ā˚ sam-pa˚). In meaning of “near by, together” it is opposed to para˚; as modifying prefix it is contrary to abhi˚; and (more frequently) to vi˚; (e.g. saṃvadati → vivadati), whereas it often equals pa˚; (e.g. pamodati → sammodati), with which it is often combined as sampa˚ and also abhi˚; (e.g. abhivaḍḍhati → saṃvaḍḍhati), with which often combined as abhisaṃ˚
■ Bdhgh & Dhpāla explain; saṃ˚; by sammā (Snp-a.151; Kp-a.209: so read for samā āgatā), suṭṭhu (see e.g. santasita, santusita) or samantā (= altogether; Snp-a.152, Snp-a.154), or (dogmatically) sakena santena samena (Kp-a.240), or as “saṃyoga” Vism.495
■ In combination with y we find both saṃy˚; and saññ˚. The usual conṭracted form before r is sā˚.

prefix; Idg. *sem one; one & the same, cp. Gr.; ὁμαλός even, α ̔́μα at one, ὁμός together; Sk. sama even, the same; samā in the same way; Av. hama same = Goth. sama, samap together; Lat. simul (= simultaneous), similis “re-sembling.” Also Sk. sa (= sa2 together = Gr. ἁ ἀ-(e.g. α ̓́κοιτις); Av. ha-; and samyak towards one point = P. sammā
■ Analogously to Lat semel “once,” simul, we find sa˚; as numeral base for “one” in Vedic sakṛt “once” = P. sakid (& sakad) sahasra 1000 = P.; sahassa, and in adv. sadā “always, lit. “in one”