a shell conch; mother-of-pearl; a chank, commonly used as a trumpet DN.i.79; DN.ii.297 = MN.i.58; AN.ii.117; AN.iv.199; Vv.81#10; Ja.i.72; Ja.ii.110;,; Mil.21 (dhamma˚) Dhp-a.i.18. Combined with paṇava (small drum) Vism.408;; or with bheri (large drum) Mil.21; Vism.408.

  • -ūpama like a shell, i.e. white Ja.v.396, cp.
  • -kuṭṭhin a kind of leper; whose body becomes as white as mother-of-pearl Dhp-a.i.194, Dhp-a.i.195.
  • -thāla mother ofpearl (shell-) plate Vism.126 (sudhota˚), Vism.255.
  • -dhama a trumpeter DN.i.259 = MN.ii.19; MN.ii.207 = SN.iv.322
  • -dhamaka a conch blower, trumpeter Ja.i.284;
  • -nābhi a kind of shell Vin.i.203; Vin.ii.117.
  • -patta motherof-pearl Dhp-a.i.387.
  • -muṇḍika the shell-tonsure, a kind of torture MN.i.87; AN.i.47; AN.ii.122.
  • -mutta mother-of-pearl Ja.v.380 (C explains as “shell-jewel & pearl-jewel”),,
  • -likhita polished like mother-of-pearl bright, perfect DN.i.63, DN.i.250; SN.ii.219; AN.v.204; Vin.i.181 Pp.57; DN-a.i.181; Dhp-a.iv.195. See also under likhita & cp. Franke, Wiener Zeitschrift 1893, 357.
  • -vaṇṇa pearl-white Ja.iii.477; MN.i.58 = AN.iii.324.
  • -sadda the sound of a chank AN.ii.186; Vism.408; Dhs.621.
  • -silā “shell-stone,” a precious stone, mother-of-pearl (? Ud.54; Ja.iv.85; Pv.ii.6#4. Frequent in BSk., e.g. Avs.i.184, Avs.i.201, Avs.i.205; Divy.291.

cp. Vedic śankha; Gr. κόγξος shell, measure of capacity, & κόξλος; Lat. congius a measure


a water plant (combined with sevāla) Mil.35. See detail under paṇṇaka 2.