1. nature, character, habit behaviour; usually as-˚ in adj. function “being of such a nature,” like, having the character of…, e.g. adāna˚; of stingy character, illiberal Snp.244; Pv-a.68 (+ maccharin); kiṃ˚; of what behaviour? Pv.ii.9#13 keḷi˚; tricky Pv-a.241; damana˚; one who conquers Pv-a.251; parisuddha˚; of excellent character AN.iii.124 pāpa˚; wicked Snp.246; bhaṇana˚; wont to speak Dhp-a.iv.93; vāda˚; quarrelsome Snp.381 sq
    dussīla (of) bad character DN.iii.235; Dhs.1327; Pp.20, Pp.53; Pv.ii.8#2 (noun); Pv.ii.9#69 (adj.); Dhp-a.ii.252; Dhp-a.iv.3; Sdhp.338; Mil.257; opp. susīla SN.i.141.

  2. moral practice, good character, Buddhist ethics, code of morality.

    1. The dasa-sīla or 10 items of good character (not “commandments”) are

      1. pāṇātipātā veramaṇī, i.e. abstinence from taking life;
      2. adinn’ādānā (from) taking what is not given to one;
      3. abrahmacariyā adultery (oṭherwise called kāmesu micchā-cārā);
      4. musāvādā telling lies;
      5. pisuna-vācāya slander;
      6. pharusa-vācāya harsh or impolite speech;
      7. samphappalāpā frivolous and senseless talk;
      8. abhijjhāya covetousness
      9. byāpādā malevolence;
      10. micchādiṭṭhiyā heretic views

      ■ Of these 10 we sometimes find only the first 7 designated as “sīla” per se, or good character generally See e.g. AN.i.269 (where called sīla-sampadā); AN.ii.83 sq (not called “sīla”), & sampadā

    2. The pañca-sīla or 5 items of good behaviour are Nos. 1–4 of dasa-sīla and (5) abstaining from any state of indolence arising from (the use of) intoxicants, viz. surā-meraya-majjapamāda-ṭṭhānā veramaṇī. These five also from the first half of the 10 sikkha-padāni. They are a sort of preliminary condition to any higher development after conforming to the teaching of the Buddha (saraṇaṃgamana) and as such often mentioned when a new follower is “officially” installed, e.g. Bv.ii.190: saraṇâgamane kañci nivesesi Tathāgato kañci pañcasu sīlesu sīle dasavidhe paraṃ. From Pv.iv.1#76 sq. (as also fr. Kp ii. as following upon Kp i.) it is evident that the sikkhāpadāni are meant in this connection (either 5 or 10), and not the sīlaṃ, cp. also Pv.iv.3#50 sq., although at the above passage of Bv and at Ja.i.28 as well as at Mhvs.18, Mhvs.10 the expression dasa-sīla is used: evidently a later development of the term as regards dasa-sīla (cp. Mvu translation 122, n. 3), which through the identity of the 5 sīlas & sikkhāpadas was transferred to the 10 sikkhāpadas. These 5 are often simply called; pañca dhammā, e.g. at AN.iii.203 sq., AN.iii.208 sq. Without a special title they are mentioned in connection with the “saraṇaṃ gata” formula e.g. at AN.iv.266. Similarly the 10 sīlas (as above a) are only called dhammā at AN.ii.253 sq.; AN.v.260; nor are they designated as sīla at AN.ii.221
      ■ pañcasu sīlesu samādapeti to instruct in the 5 sīlas (alias sikkhāpadāni) Vin.ii.162

    3. The only standard enumerations of the 5 or 10 sīlas are found at two places in the Saṃyutta and correspond with those given in the Niddesa. See on the 10 (as given under a) SN.iv.342 & Cnd s. v. sīla; on the 5 (also as under b SN.ii.68 & Cnd s. v. The so-called 10 sīlas (Childers) as found at Kp ii. (under the name of dasa-sikkhāpada are of late origin & served as memorial verses for the use of novices. Strictly speaking they should not be called; dasa-sīla
      ■ The eightfold sīla or the eight pledges which are recommended to the Buddhist layman (cp Mil.333 mentioned below) are the sikkhāpadas Nos 1–8 (see sikkhāpada), which in the Canon however do not occur under the name of sīla nor sikkhāpada, but as aṭṭhaṅga-samannāgata uposatha (or aṭṭhaṅgika u. “the fast-day with its 8 constituents.” They are discussed in detail at AN.iv.248 sq., with a poetical setting of the eight at AN.iv.254 = Snp.400, Snp.401.

    4. Three special tracts on morality are found in the Canon. The Cullasīla (DN.i.3 sq.) consists first of the items (dasa) sīla 1-7 then follow specific injunctions as to practices of daily living & special conduct, of which the first 5 (omitting the introductory item of bījagāma-bhūtagāma-samārambha) form the seco nd.5 sikkhāpadāni. Upon the; Culla˚; follows the Majjhima˚; (DN.i.5 sq.) & then the; Mahāsīla DN.i.9 sq. The whole of these 3 sīlas is called sīlakkhandha and is (in the Sāmaññaphala sutta e.g.) grouped with samādhi- and paññākkhandha: DN.i.206 sq.; at AN.v.205, AN.v.206 sīla-kkhandha refers to the Culla-sīla only The three (s., samādhi & paññā) are often mentioned together, e.g. DN.ii.81, DN.ii.84; Iti.51; DN-a.i.57
      ■ The characteristic of a kalyāṇa-mitta is endowment with saddhā, sīla, cāga, paññā AN.iv.282. These four are counted as constituents of future bliss AN.iv.282, and form the 4 sampadās ibid. 322. In another connection at MN.iii.99; Vism.19. They are, with suta (foll. after sīla) characteristic of the merit of the devatās AN.i.210 sq (under devat’ânussati)
      ■ At Mil.333 sīla is classed as: saraṇa˚, pañca˚, aṭṭhanga˚, dasanga˚, pātimokkhasaṃvara˚ all of which expressions refer to the sikkhāpadas and not to the sīlas
      ■ At Mil.336 sq. sīla functions as one of the 7 ratanas (the 5 as given under sampadā up to vimuttiñāṇadassana; plus paṭisambhidā and bojjhanga)
      cattāro sīlakkhandhā “4 sections of morality” Mil.243; Vism.15 & Dhs-a.168 (here as pātimokkha-saṃvara, indriya-saṃvara, ājīvapārisuddhi, paccaya-sannissita. The same with ref to catubbidha sīla at Ja.iii.195). See also under compounds At Pts.i.46 sq. we find the fivefold grouping as 1 pāṇâtipatassa pahānaṃ, 2 veramaṇī, 3 cetanā 4 saṃvara, 5 avītikkama, which is commented on at Vism.49
      ■ A fourfold sīla (referring to the sikkhāpada is given at Vism.15 as bhikkhu˚, bhikkhunī˚, anupasampanna˚ gahaṭṭha˚
      ■ On sīla and adhisīla see e.g. AN.i.229 sq.; Vb-a.413 sq
      ■ The division of sīla at Ja.iii.195 is a distinction of a simple sīla as “saṃvara, of twofold sīla as “caritta-vāritta,” threefold as “kāyika, vācasika, mānasika,” and fourfold as above under cattāro sīlakkhandhā
      ■ See further generally: Pts.i.42 sq.; Vism.3 sq.; Tikp.154, Kp.165 sq., Kp.269, Kp.277; Mnd.14, Mnd.188 (explained as “pātimokkha-saṃvara”); Cnd.277 Vb-a.143.

    -aṅga constituent of morality (applied to the pañcasikkhāpadaṃ) Vb-a.381. -ācāra practice of morality Ja.i.187; Ja.ii.3. -kathā exposition of the duties of morality Vin.i.15; AN.i.125; Ja.i.188. -kkhandha all that belongs to moral practices, body of morality as forming the first constituent of the 5 khandhas or groups (+ samādhi˚ paññā˚, vimutti˚, ñāṇadassana-kkhandha), which make up the 5 sampadās or whole range of religious development; see e.g. Mnd.21, Mnd.39; Cnd.p.277
    ■ Vin.i.162 sq. Vin.iii.164; AN.i.124, AN.i.291; AN.ii.20; SN.i.99 sq.; Iti.51, Iti.107 Ne.90 sq., Ne.128; Mil.243; Dhp-a.iii.417. -gandha the fragrance of good works Dhp.55; Vism.58. -caraṇa moral life Ja.iv.328, Ja.iv.332. -tittha having good behaviour as its banks SN.i.169, SN.i.183 (translation Mrs. Rh. D. “with virtue’s strand for bathing”). -bbata [= vata2] good works and ceremonial observances Dhp.271; AN.i.225; SN.iv.118; Ud.71; Snp.231, etc.; sīlavata the same Snp.212 Snp.782, Snp.790, Snp.797, Snp.803, Snp.899; Iti.79 sq.; ˚-parāmāsa the contagion of mere rule and ritual, the infatuation of good works, the delusion that they suffice Vin.i.184; MN.i.433; Dhs.1005; AN.iii.377; AN.iv.144 sq.; Mnd.98; Duka-pa.245 , Kp.282 sq.; Dhs-a.348; see also expln at Cpd. 171, n.4 sīlabbatupādāna grasping after works and rites DN.ii.58; Dhs.1005, Dhs.1216; Vism.569; Vb-a.181 sq
    ■ The old form sīlavata still preserves the original good sense, as much as “observing the rules of good conduct,” “being of virtuous behaviour.” Thus at Thag.12; Snp.212, Snp.782 (explained in detail at Mnd.66), Snp.790, Snp.797, Snp.803; Iti.79; Ja.vi.491 (ariya˚). -bheda a breach of morality Ja.i.296 -mattaka a matter of mere morality DN.i.3; DN-a.i.55 -maya consisting in morality Iti.51; Vv-a.10 (see maya defn 6). -vatta morality, virtue SN.i.143; cp. Ja.iii.360 -vipatti moral transgression Vin.i.171 sq.; DN.ii.85; AN.i.95; AN.i.268 sq.; AN.iii.252; Pp.21; Vism.54, Vism.57. -vipanna trespassing DN.ii.85; Pp.21; Vin.i.227. -vīmaṃsaka testing one’s reputation Ja.i.369; Ja.ii.429; Ja.iii.100, Ja.iii.193 -saṃvara self-restraint in conduct DN.i.69; Dhs.1342; DN-a.i.182. -saṃvuta living under moral self-restraint Dhp.281. -sampatti accomplishment or attainment by moral living Vism.57. -sampadā practice of morality Vin.i.227; DN.ii.86; MN.i.194, MN.i.201 sq.; AN.i.95, AN.i.269 sq. AN.ii.66; Pp.25, Pp.54. -sampanna practising morality virtuous Vin.i.228; DN.i.63; DN.ii.86; MN.i.354; Thig.196 Thag-a.168; DN-a.i.182.

    cp. Sk. śīla. It is interesting to note that the Dhtp puts down a root sīl in meaning of samādhi (No 268) and upadhāraṇa (615)