Iti (ti)

indeclinable emphatic deictic particle “thus”. Occurs in both forms iti & ti, the former in higher style (poetry), the latter more familiar in conversational prose. The function of “iti” is expld. by the old Pāli C. in a conventional phrase, looking upon it more as a “filling” particle than trying to define its meaning viz “itī ti padasandhi padasaṃsaggo padapāripurī akkharasamavāyo etc.” Mnd.123 = Cnd.137. The same expln. also for iti’ haṃ (see below iv.)

I. As deictic adv

“thus, in this way” (Vism.423 iti = evaṃ pointing to something either just mentioned or about to be mentioned:

  1. referring to what precedes Snp.253 (n’eso maman ti iti naṃ vijaññā), Snp.805; Iti.123 (ito devā … taṃ namassanti); Dhp.74 (iti bālassa sankappo thus think the-foolish), Dhp.286 (iti bālo vicinteti); Vv.79#10 (= evaṃ Vv-a.307); Vv-a.5
  2. referring to what follows DN.i.63 (iti paṭisañcikkhati); AN.i.205 (id.)

II. As emphatic part

Pointing out or marking off a statement either as not one’s own (reported) or as the definite contents of (one’s own or other’s) thoughts. On the whole untranslatable (unless written as quotation marks), often only setting off a statement as emphatic, where we would either underline the word or phrase in question, or print it in italics, or put it in quot. marks (e.g. bālo ti vuccati Dhp.63 = bālo vuccati).

  1. in direct speech (as given by writer or narrator), e.g. sādhu bhante Kassapa lābhataṃ esā janatā dassanāyā ti. Tena hi Sīha tvaṃ yeva Bhagavato ārocehī ti. Evaṃ bhante ti kho Sīho…. DN.i.151.
  2. in indirect speech:
    1. as statement of a fact “so it is that” (cp. E. “viz.”, Ger. “und zwar”), mostly untranslated Kp iv. (arahā ti pavuccati); Ja.i.253 (tasmā pesanaka-corā t’ eva vuccanti); Ja.iii.51 (tayo sahāyā ahesuṃ makkato sigālo uddo ti); Pv-a.112 (ankuro pañca-sakaṭasatehi… aññataro pi brāhmaṇo pañca-sakaṭasatehī ti dve janā sakata-sahassehi… patipannā)
    2. as statement of a thought “like this”, “I think”, so, thus Snp.61 (“sango eso” iti ñatvā knowing “this is defilement”), Snp.253 (“neso maman” ti iti naṃ vijaññā), Snp.783 (“iti’ han” ti), Snp.1094 (etaṃ dīpaṃ anāparaṃ Nibbānaṃ iti naṃ brūmi I call this N.), Snp.1130 (aparā pāraṃ gaccheyya tasmā “Parāyanaṃ” iti)

III. Peculiarities of spelling

  1. in combn. with other part. iti is elided & contracted as follows icc’ eva, t’ eva, etc
  2. final a, i, u preceding ti are lengthened to ā, ī, ū, e.g. mā evaṃ akatthā ti Dhp-a.i.7 kati dhurānī ti ibid; dve yeva dhurāni bhikkhū ti ibid. IV. Combinations with other emphatic particles: + eva thus indeed, in truth, really; as icc’ eva Pv.i.11#9 (evam eva Pv-a.59); t’ eva Ja.i.253; Mil.114; tv’ eva Ja.i.203; Ja.ii.2. -iti kira thus now, perhaps, I should say DN.i.228, DN.i.229, DN.i.240. -iti kho thus, therefore DN.i.98, DN.i.103 DN.iii.135. iti and so on (?), thus and such (similar cases Mnd.13 = Cnd.420 A1. -iti ha thus surely, indeed Snp.934, Snp.1084 (see below under ītihītihaṃ; cp. Snp-a Index 669: itiha? and itikirā); Iti.76; DN-a.i.247, as iti haṃ at Snp.783 (same expln. at Mnd.71 as for iti). -kin ti how Ja.ii.159.

-kirā (f.) [a substantivised iti kira] hearsay, lit. “so I guess” or “I have heard” AN.i.189 = AN.ii.191 sq. = Cnd.151. Cp. itiha. -bhava becoming so & so (opp. abhava not becoming) Vin.ii.184 (˚abhava); DN.i.8 (ip = iti bhavo iti abhavo DN-a.i.91); AN.ii.248; Iti.109 (id.); syn. with itthabhava (q.v.). -vāda “speaking so & so”, talk, gossip MN.i.133; SN.v.73; AN.ii.26; Iti.iii.35. -vuttaka (nt.) [a noun formation fr. iti vuttaṃ] “so it has been said” (book of) quotations, “Logia”, Name of the fourth book of the Khuddaka-nikāya, named thus because every sutta begins with vuttaṃ h’ etaṃ Bhagavatā “thus has the Buddha said” (see khuddaka and navanga) Vin.iii.8; MN.i.133; AN.ii.7, AN.ii.103; AN.iii.86, AN.iii.177, AN.iii.361 sq.; Pp.43, Pp.62 Kp-a.12. Kern,


s. v. compares the interesting BSk. distortion itivṛttaṃ. -hāsa [= iti ha āsa, preserving the Vedic form āsa, 3rd sg. perf. of atthi] “thus indeed it has been”, legendary lore, oral tradition, history usually mentioned as a branch of brahmanic learning, in phrase itihāsa-pañca-mānaṃ padako veyyākaraṇo etc. DN.i.88 = (see DN-a.i.247); AN.i.163; AN.iii.223; Snp.447, Snp.1020 Cp. also Mvu.i.556
■ hītiha [itiha + itiha] “so so” talk, gossip, oral tradition, belief by hearsay etc. (cp itikirā & anītiha. Cnd spells ītihītiha) MN.i.520; SN.i.154; Snp.1084; Cnd.151.

Vedic iti, of pron. base *i, cp. Sk. itthaṃ thus, itthā here, there; Av. ipa so; Lat. ita & item thus Cp. also P. ettha; lit. “here, there (now), then”