upa*, e.g. devūpaṭṭhāna, lokûpaga, puññûpatthambhita-Meanings:

  1. (Rest): on upon, up-˚kiṇṇa covered over; ˚jīvati live on (cp. anu˚); ˚tthambhita propped up, sup-ported; ˚cita heaped up, ac-cumulated ˚dhāreti hold or take up; ˚nata bent on; ˚nissaya foundation; ˚nissita depending on etc
  2. (Aim): (out up to (the speaker or hearer); cp. the meanings developed out of this as “higher, above” in upara, upari, upama Lat. superus, supremus E.g. ˚kaḍḍhati drag on to; ˚kappati come to, accrue; ˚kappana ad-ministering; ˚kāra service to; ˚kkhata administered; ˚gacchati go to, ap-proach (cp. upâtigacchati); ˚disati ad-vise; ˚dhāvati run up to ˚nadati to sound out; ˚nikkhamati come out up to; ˚nisevita gone on to or after; ˚neti bring on to; etc
  3. (Nearness): close by, close to, near, “ad-”; e.g. ˚kaṇṇaka close to the ear; ˚cāra ap-plication; ˚ṭṭhāna at-tending ṭṭhita ap-proached; ˚tiṭṭhati stand by, look after; ˚dduta urged; ˚nāmeti place close to; ˚nibandhati tie close to ˚nisīdati sit close to or down by
  4. (Intensive use) quite, altogether, “up”; e.g. ˚antika quite near; ˚chindati cut up
  5. (Diminutive use as in Lat. subabsurdus Gr. ὑπόλευκος whitish; Oir. fo-dord; Cymr. go-durdd murmur): nearly, about, somewhat, a little, secondary by-, miniature, made after the style of, e.g. ˚aḍḍha about half; ˚kacchaka like a little hollow; ˚kaṇḍakin (= ˚paṇḍukin? whitish); ˚deva a minor god; ˚nibha somewhat similar to; ˚nila bluish; upapurohita minor priest uparajja viceroyalty; upalohitaka, uparopa; ˚vana a little forest. etc. Note. The nearest semantie affinity of upa is ā˚.