1. (lit.)

    1. (good or proper) time, season: aruṇa-utu occasion or time of the sun(-rise) Dhp-a.i.165; utuṃ gaṇhāti to watch for the right time (in horoscopic practice), to prognosticate ibid. sarīraṃ utuṃ gaṇhāpeti “to cause the body to take season”, i.e. to refresh the body by cool, sleep, washing etc. Ja.iii.527; DN-a.i.252
    2. yearly change, time of the year, season Vism.128. There are usually three seasons mentioned, viz. the hot, rainy and wintry season or gimha vassa & hemanta; AN.iv.138; Snp-a.317. Six seasons (in connection with nakkhatta) at Ja.v.330 & Ja.vi.524. Often utu is to be understood, as in hemantikena (scil. utunā in the wintry season SN.v.51
    3. the menses Snp-a.317; Ja.v.330 (utusinātāya read utusi nhātāya; utusi loc. as expld. by C. pupphe uppanne utumhi nahātāya).
  2. (applied in a philosophical sense: one of the five fold cosmic order, physical change, physical law of causation (opp. kamma), physical order: see Asl.272 f.; Dialogues II, 8, n.; Kvu trsln. 207; cp. Mrs. Rh. D. Buddhism p. 119 f., Cpd. 161, Dhs trsln. introd. xvii; & cp. cpds So in connection with kamma at Vism.451, Vism.614; Ja.vi.105 (kamma-paccayena utunā samuṭṭhitā Veraraṇī); perhaps also at Mil.410 (megha ututo samuṭṭhahitvā).

  • -āhāra physical nutriment (cp. Dhs trsln. 174) Pv-a.148.
  • -ūpasevanā seasonable activity, pursuit (of activities according to the seasons, observance of the seasons Snp.249 (= gimhe ātapa-ṭṭhāna-sevanā vasse rukkha-mūla-sevanā hemante jalappavesa-sevanā Snp-a.291).
  • -kāla seasonable favourable time (of the year) Vin.i.299; Vin.ii.173.
  • -ja produced by the seasons or by physical change Mil.268 (kamma˚ hetu˚, utu˚); Vism.451.
  • -nibbatta coming to existence through physical causes Mil.268.
  • -pamāṇa measure of the season, i.e. the exact season Vin.i.95.
  • -pariṇāma change (adversity) of the season (as cause of disease) SN.iv.230; AN.ii.87; AN.iii.131; AN.v.110; Mil.112, Mil.304; Vism.31.
  • -parissaya danger or risk of the seasons AN.iii.388.
  • -pubba festival on the eve of each of the six seasons Ja.vi.524
  • -āhāra physical nutriment (cp. Dhs trsln. 174) Pv-a.148.
  • -vikāra change of season Vism.262.
  • -veramanī abstinence during the time of menstruaīion Snp.291 (cp. Snp-a.317).
  • -saṃvacchara the year or cycle of the seasons, pl. ˚ā the seasons DN.iii.85; AN.ii.75; SN.v.442. The phrase utusaṃvaccharāni at Pv.ii.9#55 is by Dhammapāla taken as a bahuvrīhi cpd., viz cycles of seasons & of years, i.e. vasanta-gimh ādike bahū utū ca citta-saṃvacchar;’adi bahūni saṃvaccharāni ca Pv-a.135. Similarly at Ja.v.330 (with Cy).
  • -sappāya suitable to the season, seasonable Dhp-a.327.
  • -samaya time of the menses Snp-a.317.

Vedic ṛtu special or proper time, with adj. ṛta straight, right, rite, ṛti manner to Lat. ars “art”, Gr.δαμαρ(τ), further Lat. rītus (rite), Ags. rīm number; of *ar to fit in, adjust etc. q.v. under appeti