- restraint, only as cpd. cātu-yāma 4-fold restraint DN.i.57; DN.iii.48; SN.i.66; MN.i.377; Vism.416. Cp. Dial. i.751.
- a watch of the night. There are 3 watches given as paṭhama, majjhima & pacchima; (first, middle & last) Mnd.377 sq.; or purima, m. & pacchima; Cnd.631 (under sadā)
■ AN.i.114; AN.iv.168; Dhp.157 (one of the 3; interpreted as the 3 vayas at Dhp-a.iii.138); Ja.i.243 (tīsu yāmesu ekasmiṃ yāme); Mhvs.21, Mhvs.33; Pv-a.217 Pv-a.280.
- (usually pl. Yāmā devā) one who belongs to Yama or the ruler of the Underworld; a subject of Yama the realm of Yama
■ pl. inhabitants of Yamaloka AN.i.210 (yāmā devā); Snp-a.244 (˚bhavana the abode of the Y.); Kp-a.166 (Yāmato yāva Akaniṭṭhaṃ from the Underworld to the Highest Heaven); Vism.225 (Yāmā); Vb-a.519 (Yāmā); Vv-a.246 (id.); Thag-a.169 (Y. devā).
-kālika of a restricted time, for a (relatively) short period (lit.) only for one watch of the night, but longer than yāva-kālika temporary. It is one of the three regulation-terms for specified food, viz. y
■ k., sattāhakālika & yāvajīvika;, or short period, of a week’s duration and life-long food Vin.iv.83, Vin.iv.86, Vin.iv.176, Vin.iv.311; to which is added yāva-kālika, temporary at Vin.i.251 (where mutual relations of the 4 are discussed). -gaṇḍika(ṃ) koṭṭeti to beat the block of restraint (?), i.e. exercise self-control (?) (or does it belong to yāma 3?) Kp-a.233.
fr. yam in both meanings of yamati & yama3