ṭhāna

(ṭṭhāna) neuter

I. Connotation

As one of the 4 iriyāpathā (behaviours)

  1. contrasted (a) as standing position with sitting or reclining (b) as rest with motion.
  2. by itself without particular characterization as location.

II. Meanings

  1. Literal: place, region, locality abode, part (-˚ of, or belonging to)-

    1. cattāri ṭhānāni dassanīyāni four places (in the career of Buddha) to be visited DN.ii.140 = AN.ii.120; vāse ṭhāne gamane Snp.40 (expl. by Snp-a.85 as mahā-upaṭṭhāna-sankhāte ṭhāne but may be referred to I.1 (b)); ṭhānā cāveti to remove from one’s place Snp.442; Ja.iv.138; Pv-a.55 (spot of the body)
    2. kumbha˚ (the “locality of the pitcher, i.e. the well) q.v.; arañña˚ (part of the forest) Ja.i.253; Pv-a.32; nivāsana˚ (abode) Pv-a.76; phāsuka˚ Ja.ii.103 Pv-a.13; vasana˚ Ja.i.150, Ja.i.278; Vv-a.66; virūhana˚ (place for the growing of…) Pv-a.7; vihāra (place of his sojourn) Pv-a.22; saka˚ (his own abode) Ja.ii.129; Pv-a.66
    3. In this meaning it approaches the metaphorical sense of “condition, state” (see 2 & cp. gati in: dibbāni ṭhānāni heavenly regions SN.i.21; tidivaṃ SN.i.96; saggaṃ ṭh. a happy condition Pv.i.1#3; pitu gata the place where my father went (after death) Pv-a.38 Yamassa ṭh. = pettivasaya Pv-a.59
    4. In its pregnant sense in combination with accuta & acala it represents the connotation I.1(b), i.e. perdurance, constancy i.e. Nibbāna Vv.51#4; Dhp.225.
  2. Applied meanings

    1. state, condition; also-˚ (in sg.) as collective-abstract suffix in the sense of being, behaviour (corresponding to E. ending hood, ion, or ing), where it resembles abstr formations in ˚tā & ˚ttaṃ (Sk. tā & tvaṃ), as lahuṭṭhāna = lahutā & collect. formations in ˚ti (Sk. daśati ten-hood; devatāti godhead, sarvatāti = P. sabbattaṃ comprehensiveness; cp. also Lat. civitātem, juventūtem)
      ■ SN.i.129 (condition), SN.ii.27 (asabha˚) = MN.i.69; SN.iii.57 (atasitāyaṃ fearless state): AN.ii.118 sq. (four conditions); Dhp.137 (dasannaṃ aññataraṃ th.˚ nigacchati he undergoes one of the foll. ten conditions, i.e. items of affliction, explained at Dhp-a.iii.70 with kāraṇa “labours”), Dhp.309 (states = dukkhakāraṇāni Dhp-a.iii.482 conditions of suffering or ordeals); hattha-pasāraṇa-ṭṭhāna condition of outstretched hands Dhp-a.i.298 loc. ṭhāne (-˚) when required, at the occasion of… Dhp-a.i.89 (hasitabba˚, saṃvega˚, dātuṃ yutta˚); pubbe nibbatta -ṭṭhānato paṭṭhāya “since the state (or the time) of his former birth” Pv-a.100
      ■ vibhūsanaṭṭhāna ornamentation, decoration, things for adornment DN.i.5; Snp.59 (DN-a.i.77 superficially: ṭhānaṃ vuccati kāraṇaṃ; Snp-a.112 simply vibhūsā eva v-ṭṭhānaṃ); jūta-pamāda˚ (gambling & intoxication) DN.i.6 (cp. expl. at Kp-a.26); gata˚ & āgata˚; (her) going coming Ja.iii.188
      ■ pariccāga˚ distribution of gifts Pv-a.124
    2. (part =) attribute, quality, degree aggasāvaka˚ (degrees of discipleship) Vv-a.2; esp. in set of 10 attributes, viz. rūpa (etc. 1–5), āyu, vaṇṇa sukha, yasa, ādhipateyya DN.iii.146; SN.iv.275; Pv.ii.9#58 also collectively (see a) as dasaṭṭhānaṃ SN.i.193; out of these are mentioned as 4 attributes āyu, vaṇṇa, sukha bala at Vv.32#7; other ten at AN.v.129 (pāsaṃsāni).
    3. (counter-part =) object (-˚ for), thing; item, point pl. grounds, ways, respects. With a numeral often = a (five)fold collection of… SN.iv.249 sq. (5 objects or things, cp. Ger. fünferlei); AN.iii.54 sq. (id.), AN.iii.60 sq. AN.iii.71 sq.; etehi tīhi ṭhānehi on these 3 grounds Dhp.224 manussā tīhi ṭhānehi bahuṃ puññaṃ pasavanti: kāyena vācāya manasā (in 3 ways, qualities or properties AN.i.51 sq.; cp. AN.ii.119 sq. (= saṃvutaṃ tīhi ṭhānehi Dhp.391); catuhi ṭhānehi in Com. equals catuhi ākārehi or kāraṇehi pāmujjakaraṇaṃ ṭh. (object) Snp.256; ekaccesu ṭhānesu sameti ekaccesu na sameti “I agree in certain points, but not in others” DN.i.162; kankhaniya doubtful point SN.iv.350, SN.iv.399
      ■ n’ atthi aññaṃ ṭhānaṃ no other means, nothing else Dhp-a.ii.90; agamanīya something not to be done, not allowed Vv-a.72; cp. also kamma˚
    4. (standpoint =) ground for (assumption) reason, supposition, principle, esp. a sound conclusion logic, reasonableness (opp. a˚ see 4): garayhaṃ th. āgacchati “he advocates a faulty principle” DN.i.161 catuhi ṭh. paññāpeti (four arguments) SN.iii.116; SN.iv.380 ṭhāna-kusala accomplished in sound reasoning SN.iii.61 sq (satta˚); AN.ii.170 sq. Also with aṭṭhāna-kusala: see below 4.

III. Adverbial use of some cases

■ acc. ṭhānaṃ: ettakaṃ ṭh. even a little bit Dhp-a.i.389
■ abl. ṭhānaso: in combination w. hetuso with reason & cause, causally conditioned (see 2 d) SN.v.304; AN.iii.417; AN.v.33; Ne.94 (ñāṇa); abs. without moving (see I.1 (b) & cp. Lat statim) i.e. without an interval or a cause (of change) at once, immediately, spontaneously, impromptu (cp cpd.˚ uppatti) SN.i.193; SN.v.50, SN.v.321, SN.v.381; Pv.i.4#4 (= khaṇaṃ yeva Pv-a.19)
■ loc. ṭhāne instead = like, as dhītu ṭhāne ṭhapesi he treats her like a daughter Vv-a.209 puttaṭṭhāne as a son Ja.ii.132.

IV. Contrasted with negation of term

(ṭhāna & aṭṭhāna) The meanings in this category are restricted to those mentioned above under I esp. 1 (a) & 2 (d, viz. the relations of place → not place (or wrong place, also as proper time & wrong time), i.e. somewhere → nowhere and of possibility → impossibility (truth → falsehood)

  1. ṭhānaṃ upagacchati (pathaviyā) to find a (resting place on the ground, to stay on the ground (by means of the law of attraction and gravitation) Mil.255; opp. na ṭhānaṃ upa˚ to find no place to rest, to go into nothingness Mil.180, Mil.237, Mil.270
  2. ṭhānaṃ vijjati there is a reason, it is logically sound, it is possible DN.i.163 DN.i.175; MN.iii.64; Pts.ii.236 sq.; cp. Mhvs.ii.448; opp na etaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati it is not possible, feasible, plausible logically correct Vin.ii.284; DN.i.104, DN.i.239; MN.ii.10 MN.iii.64; Mil.237; Ne.92 sq
  3. aṭṭhānaṃ an impossibility Snp.54 (aṭṭhāna, with elision of ṃ); aṭṭhāne at the wrong time Ja.i.256; ṭhāna is that one of the gatis which is accessible to human influence, as regards gifts of relief or sacrifice (this is the pettivisaya), whilst aṭṭhāna applied to the other 4 gatis (see gati) Pv-a.27 sq. In cpd. ṭhānāṭhāna-gata it means referring or leading to good & bad places (gatis): of sabbe khayadhammā (i.e. keci saggûpagā keci apāyûpagā) Ne.94 In combn apucchi nipuṇe pañhe ṭhānâṭhānagate (Mil.1) it may mean either questions concerning possibilities & impossibilities or truths & falsehoods, or questions referring to happy & unhappy states (of existence); ṭhānâṭhāna-ñāṇa is “knowledge of correct & faulty conclusions” Ne.94, cp. Kv.231 sq.; the same combination occurs with ˚kusala ˚kusalatā “accomplished or skilled (& skill) in understanding correct or faulty conclusions” DN.iii.212 (one of the ten powers of the Buddha); MN.iii.64; Dhs.1337, Dhs.1338 (trsl. by Mrs Rh. D. on p. 348 Dhs. trsl. as “skill in affirming or negating causal conjuncture”). In the same sense ṭhānaṃ ṭhānato pajānāti (& aṭṭhānaṃ aṭṭhānato p.) to draw a logical inference from that which is a proper ground for inference (i.e. which is logical) SN.v.304; MN.i.69 sq. = AN.iii.417; AN.v.33.
  • -uppatti arising instantaneously (see ṭhānaso, above III.) Vv-a.37; Ja.vi.308 (˚kāraṇavindana finding a means right on the spot); -ka (adj.) on the spot, momentary spontaneous Ja.vi.304.

Vedic sthāna, sthā, see tiṭṭhati; cp. Sk. sthāman Gr. σταχμίς, Lat. stamen