A city in the Bhagga country, of which it was probably the capital. Near the city was the Bhesakalāvana where the Buddha stayed.
During his visits there he preached the Anumāna Sutta MN.i.95f. and the Bodhirāja Sutta. MN.ii.91f. The city was the residence of Nakulapitā and his wife, with whom the Buddha had several interviews. AN.ii.61 AN.iii.295f. AN.iv.268 SN.iii.1 SN.iv.116
It is said that once, when the Buddha was at Suṃsumāragiri, he saw with his divine eye Moggallāna at Kallavālamutta half asleep, and appeared before him and admonished him. AN.iv.85
On another occasion, he saw Anuruddha in the Veḷuvana in the Ceti country, pondering over the seven Mahāpurisavitakkas, and appeared before him to encourage him. AN.iv.228f. Both incidents show that the Buddha visited Suṃsumāragiri quite early in his career, in the first year after the Enlightenment. Moggallāna also stayed in Suṃsumāragiri, and there Māra is said to have entered his stomach and to have given him trouble. MN.i.332f. Thag.1208
Several Vinaya rules were passed during the Buddha’s stay at Suṃsumāragiri. Vin.ii.127 Vin.iv.115f. Vin.iv.198f.