pronoun demonstr. pron. “this, he”; f. ayaṃ; nt. idaṃ & imaṃ “this, it” etc. This pron. combines in its inflection two stems, viz. as˚; (ayaṃ in nom. m. & f.) & im˚; (id in nom. nt.).

I. Forms.

  1. ■ (sg.) nom. m. ayaṃ Snp.235; Ja.i.168, Ja.i.279
    ■ f. ayaṃ [Sk. iyaṃ] Kp.vii.12; Ja.ii.128, Ja.ii.133;
    ■ nt. idaṃ Snp.224; Ja.iii.53; & imaṃ Mil.46.;
    acc. m. imaṃ Ja.ii.160
    ■ f. imaṃ [Sk. īmāṃ] Snp.545, Snp.1002; Ja.i.280.
    gen. dat. m imassa Ja.i.222, Ja.i.279 & assa Snp.234, Snp.1100; Kp.vii.12 (dat.); Ja.ii.158;
    ■ f. imissā Ja.i.179 & assā [Sk. asyāḥ] Ja.i.290; Dhp-a.iii.172.
    instr. m. nt. iminā Ja.i.279; Pv-a.80 & (peculiarly or perhaps for amunā) aminā Snp.137;
    ■ f imāya [Sk. anayā] Ja.i.267. The instr. anena [Sk. anena is not proved in Pāli.]
    abl. asmā Snp.185; Dhp.220; imasmā (not proved).;
    loc. m. nt. imasmiṃ Kp iii.; Ja.ii.159 & asmiṃ Snp.634; Dhp.242;
    ■ f. imissā Pv-a.79 (or imissaṃ?) & imāyaṃ (no ref.)
  2. (pl.) nom. m. ime Ja.i.221; Pv.i.8#3;
    ■ f. imā [Sk. imāḥ] Snp.897 & imāyo Snp.1122;
    ■ nt. imāni [= Sk.] Vin.i.84.
    acc. m. ime [Sk. imān] Ja.i.266; Ja.ii.416;
    ■ f. imā [Sk. imāḥ] Snp.429; Ja.ii.160.
    gen. imesaṃ Ja.ii.160 & esaṃ [Sk. eṣāṃ] MN.ii.86, & esānaṃ MN.ii.154; MN.iii.259;
    ■ f. also āsaṃ Ja.i.302 (= etāsaṃ C.) & imāsaṃ;
    instr. m. nt imehi Ja.vi.364;
    ■ f. imāhi. loc.
    ■ m. nt imesu [Sk. eṣu] Ja.i.307.

II. Meanings

  1. ayaṃ refers to what is immediately in front of the speaker (the subject in question) or before his eyes or in his present time & situation, thus often to be translated by “before our eyes”, “the present” “this here”, “just this” (& not the other) (opp. para) viz. atthi imasmiṃ kāye “in this our visible body” Kp iii. yath’ âyaṃ padīpo “like this lamp here” Snp.235; ayaṃ dakkhiṇā dinnā “the gift which is just given before our eyes” Kp.vii.12; ime pādā imaṃ sīsaṃ ayaṃ kāyo Pv.i.8#3 asmiṃ loke paramhi ca “in this world & the other” Snp.634, asmā lokā paraṃ lokaṃ kathaṃ pecca na socati Snp.185; cp. also Dhp.220, Dhp.410; Ja.i.168; Ja.iii.53
  2. It refers to what immediately precedes the present of the speaker, or to what has just been mentioned in the sentence; viz. yaṃ kiñci vittaṃ… idam pi Buddhe ratanaṃ “whatever… that” Snp.224; ime divase these days (just gone) Ja.ii.416; cp. also Vin.i.84; Snp.429; Ja.ii.128 Ja.ii.160
  3. It refers to what immediately follows either in time or in thought or in connection: dve ime antā “these are the two extremes, viz.” Vin.i.10; ayaṃ eva ariyo maggo “this then is the way” ibid.; cp. Ja.i.280.
  4. With a touch of (often sarcastic) characterisation it establishes a closer personal relation between the speaker & the object in question & is to be translated by “like that such (like), that there, yonder, yon”, e.g. imassa vānarindassa “of that fellow, the monkey” Ja.i.279; cp. Ja.i.222, Ja.i.307; Ja.ii.160 (imesaṃ sattānaṃ “creatures like us”) So also repeated as ayañ ca ayañ ca “this and this”, “so and so” Ja.ii.3; idañ c’ idañ ca “such & such a thing Ja.ii.5
  5. In combination with a pron. rel. it expresses either a generalisation (whoever, whatever) or a specialisation (= that is to say, what there is of, i.e. Ger. und zwar), e.g. yâyaṃ taṇhā Vin.i.10; yo ca ayaṃ… yo ca ayaṃ “I mean this… and I mean” ibid.; ye kec’ ime Snp.381; yadidaṃ “i.e.” Mil.25; yatha-y-idaṃ “in order that” (w. pot.) Snp.1092. See also seyyathīdaṃ
  6. The gen. of all genders functions in general as a possessive pron. of the 3rd = his, her, its (lit. of him etc.) and thus resembles the use of tassa, e.g. āsava’ ssa na vijjanti “his are no intoxications” Snp.1100; sīlaṃ assā bhindāpessāmi “I shall cause her character to be defamed” Ja.i.290; assa bhariyā “his wife” Ja.ii.158 etc. freq.

Sk. ayaṃ etc., pron. base Idg. *i (cp. Sk. iha), f. *ī. Cp. Gr. ἰν, μιν; Lat. is (f. ea, nt. id); Goth is, nt. ita; Ohg. er (= he), nt. ez (= it); Lith. jìs (he) f. jì (she).