indeclinable a frequent prefix, used as well-defined simple base-prefix (with rootderivations), but not as modification (i.e. first part of a double prefix cpd. like sam-ā-dhi) except in one case ā-ni-saṃsa (which is doubtful & of diff. origin, viz. from combn. āsaṃsa-nisaṃsa, see below 3b). It denotes either touch (contact) or a personal (close) relation to the object (ā ti anussaraṇ’ atthe nipāto Pv-a.165), or the aim of the action expressed in the verb

  1. As prep. c. abl only in Ja in meaning “up to, until, about, near” Ja.vi.192 (ā sahassehi = yāva s. C.), prob. a late development As pref. in meaning “forth, out, to, towards, at, on” in foll. applications:

    1. aim in general or touch in particular (lit.), e.g. ākaḍḍhati pull to, along or up; ˚kāsa shining forth; ˚koṭeti knock at; ˚gacchati go towards ˚camati rinse over; ˚neti bring towards, ad-duce; ˚bhā shining forth; ˚bhujati bend in; ˚masati touch at; ˚yata stretched out; ˚rabhati at-tempt; ˚rohana a-scending; ˚laya hanging on; ˚loketi look at; ˚vattati ad-vert; ˚vahati bring to; ˚vāsa dwelling at; ˚sādeti touch; ˚sīdati sit by ˚hanati strike at
    2. in reflexive function: close relation to subject or person actively concerned, e.g. ādāti take on or up (to oneself); ˚dāsa looking at, mirror ˚dhāra support; ˚nandati rejoice; ˚nisaṃsa subjective gain ˚bādha being affected; ˚modita pleased; ˚rakkha guarding ˚rādhita satisfied; ˚rāma (personal) delight in; ˚lingati embrace (to oneself); ˚hāra taking to (oneself)
    3. in transitive function: close relation to the object passively concerned, e.g. āghātana killing; ˚carati indulge in; ˚cikkhati point ont, explain; ˚jīva living on; ˚ṇāpeti give an order to somebody; ˚disati point out to some one; ˚bhindati cut; ˚manteti ad-dress; ˚yācati pray to; ˚roceti speak to; siñcati besprinkle; ˚sevati indulge in
    4. out of meaning (a) develops that of an intensive-frequentative prefix in sense of “all-round, completely, very much” e.g. ākiṇṇa strewn all over, ˚kula mixed up; ˚dhuta moved about; ˚rāva shouting out or very much; ˚luḷati move about; ˚hiṇḍati roam about.
  2. Affinities. Closely related in meaning and often interchanging are the foll prep. (prefixes): anu (˚bhati), abhi (˚saṃsati), pa (˚tapati) paṭi (˚kankhati) in meaning (1) a-c; and vi (˚kirati ˚ghāta, ˚cameti, ˚lepa, ˚lopa), sam (˚tapati, ˚dassati) in meaning (1) d. See also 3b.

  3. Combinations:

    1. Intensifying combns. of other modifying prefixes with ā as base anu + ā (anvā-gacchati, ˚disati, ˚maddati, ˚rohati, ˚visati ˚sanna, ˚hata), paṭi + ā (paccā-janati, ˚ttharati, ˚dāti, ˚savati), pari + ā (pariyā-ñāta, ˚dāti, ˚pajjati, ˚harati), sam + ā (samā-disati, ˚dāna, ˚dhi, ˚pajjati, ˚rabhati)
    2. Contrast-combns. with other pref. in a double cpd. of noun, adj or verb (cp. above 2) in meaning of “up & down, in & out to & fro”; ā + ni: āvedhika-nibbedhika, āsaṃsa-nisaṃsa (contracted to ānisaṃsa), āsevita-nisevita; ā + pa: assasatipassasati (where both terms are semantically alike; in exegesis however they have been differentiated in a way which looks like a distortion of the original meaning viz. assasati is taken as “breathing out”, passasati as “breathing in”: see Vism.271), assāsa-passāsa, āmoditapamodita, āhuna-pāhuna, āhuneyya-pāhuneyya; ā + paccā ākoṭita-paccākoṭita; ā + pari: ākaḍḍhana-parikaḍḍhana āsankita-parisankita; ā + vi: ālokita-vilokita, āvāha-vivāha āveṭhana-viniveṭhana; a + sam: allāpa-sallāpa: ā + samā āciṇṇa-samāciṇṇa.
  4. Before double consonants ā is shortened to a and words containing ā in this form are to be found under a˚, e.g. akkamaṇa, akkhitta, acchādeti aññāta, appoṭeti, allāpa, assāda.

Vedic ā, prep. with acc., loc., abl., meaning “to, towards”, & also “from”. Orig. an emphatic-deictic part. (Idg. *ē) = Gr. ̓ ̈η surely, really; Ohg -ā etc., increment of a (Idg. *e), as in Sk. a-sau; Gr. εκεϊ (cp. a3) see Brugmann, Kurze Vergl. Gr. 464, 465


guṇa or increment of a˚ in connection with such suffixes as-ya, -iya, -itta. So in āyasakya fr. ayasaka; āruppa from arūpa; ārogya fr. aroga; ālasiya fr. alasa; ādhipacca fr. adhipati; ābhidosika fr. abhidosa etc.


of various other origins (guṇa e.g. of ṛ or lengthening of ordinary root a˚), rare, as ālinda (for alinda), āsabha (fr. usabha).


infix in repetition-compounds denoting accumulation or variety (by contrast with the opposite, cp. ā1 3b), constitutes a guṇa-or increment-form of neg. pref. a (see a2), as in foll.: phalāphala all sorts of fruit (lit. what is fruit not fruit) freq. in Jātakas, e.g. ; Ja.i.416; Ja.ii.160; Ja.iii.127 Ja.iv.220, Ja.iv.307, Ja.iv.449; Ja.v.313; Ja.vi.520; kāraṇākāraṇāni all sorts of duties Ja.vi.333; Dhp-a.i.385; khaṇḍākhaṇḍa pêle-mêle Ja.i.114; Ja.iii.256; gaṇḍāgaṇḍa a mass of boils Dhp-a.iii.297; cirāciraṃ continually Vin.iv.261; bhavābhava all kinds of existences Snp.801, cp. Mnd.109; Cnd.664; Thag.784 (˚esu = mahant-âmahantesu bh. C., see Brethren 305); rūpârūpa the whole aggregate Thag-a.285; etc.