the (upper) robe of a Buddhist mendicant C. is the first one of the set of 4 standard requisites of a wandering bhikkhu, vir. c˚, piṇḍapāta alms-bowl, senāsana lodging, a place to sleep at, gilānapaccaya-bhesajja-parikkhāra medicinal appliances for use in sickness. Thus mentioned passim e.g. Vin.iii.89, Vin.iii.99, Vin.iii.211; Vin.iv.154 sq.; DN.i.61; MN.ii.102; AN.i.49 Cnd. s.v.; Iti.111. In abbreviated form Snp.339; Pv-a.7; Sdhp.393. In starting on his begging round the bhikkhu goes patta-cīvaraṃ ādāya, The 3 robes are sanghāṭi, uttarāsaṅga, antaravāsaka given thus, e.g. at Vin.i.289. that is literally ʻtaking his bowl & robe.’ But this is an elliptical idiom meaning ʻputting on his outer robe and taking his bowl.’ A bhikkhu never goes into a village without wearing all his robes, he never takes them, or any one of the three, with him. Each of the three is simply; an oblong piece of cloth (usually cotton cloth). On the mode of wearing these three robes see the note at Dialogues ii.145
■ Vin.iii.11; DN.ii.85; Snp.p.21; Pv-a.10, Pv-a.13 & passim. The sewing of the robe was a festival for the laity (see under kaṭhina). There are 6 kinds of cloth mentioned for its manufacture, viz khoma, kappāsika, koseyya, kambala, sāṇa, bhanga Vin.i.58 = Vin.i.96 = Vin.i.281 (cp. ˚dussa). Two kinds of robes are distinguished: one of the gahapatika (layman) a white one, and the other that of the bhikkhu, the c proper, called paṃsukūlaṃ c. “the dust-heap robe Vin.v.117 (cp. gahapati)
■ On cīvara in general also on special ordinances concerning its making, wearing & handling see Vin.i.46, Vin.i.49 sq., Vin.i.196, Vin.i.198, Vin.i.253 sq. Vin.i.285, Vin.i.287 sq., Vin.i.306 = Vin.ii.267 (of var. colours); Vin.ii.115 sq (sibbati to sew the c.); Vin.iii.45, Vin.iii.58 (theft of a c.), Vin.iii.195–⁠ Vin.iii.223 Vin.iii.254 Vin.iii.66; Vin.iv.59 Vin.iv.62, Vin.iv.120 Vin.iv.123, Vin.iv.173, Vin.iv.279 sq., Vin.iv.283 (six kinds) AN.iii.108 (cīvare kalyāṇakāma); AN.v.100, AN.v.206; Vism.62; Iti.103; Pv-a.185
Sīse cīvaraṃ karoti to drape the outer robe over the head Vin.ii.207, Vin.ii.217; -ṃ khandhe karoti to drape it over the back Vin.ii.208, Vin.ii.217; -ṃ nikkhipati to lay it down or put it away Vin.i.47 sq.; Vin.ii.152 Vin.ii.224; Vin.iii.198, Vin.iii.203, Vin.iii.263; -ṃ saṃharati to fold it up Vin.i.46
■ Var. expressions referring to the use of the robe atireka˚; an extra robe Vin.iii.195; acceka˚; id. Vin.iii.260 sq.; kāla˚; (& akāla˚) a robe given at (and outside) the specified time Vin.iii.202 sq.; Vin.iv.284, Vin.iv.287; gahapati˚ a layman’s r. Vin.iii.169, Vin.iii.171; ti˚; the three robes, viz sanghāṭī, uttarāsanga, antaravāsaka Vin.i.288, Vin.i.289 Vin.iii.11, Vin.iii.195, Vin.iii.198 sq.; Vin.v.142; adj. tecīvarika wearing 3 rs. Vin.v.193; dubbala˚; (as adj.) with a worn-out c Vin.iii.254; Vin.iv.59, Vin.iv.154, Vin.iv.286; paṃsukūla˚; the dust-heap robe Pv-a.141; sa˚-bhatta food given with a robe Vin.iv.77; lūkha˚; (adj.) having a coarse robe Vin.i.109 (+ duccola); Vin.iii.263 (id.); AN.i.25; vihāra˚; a robe to be used in the monastery Vin.iii.212.

  • -kaṇṇa the lappet of a monk’s robe Dhp-a.iii.420 Vv-a.76 = Dhp-a.iii.106 cp. cīvarakarṇaka Avs.ii.184 & ˚ika Divy.239 Divy.341, Divy.350

  • -kamma neuter robe-making Vin.ii.218 Vin.iii.60 Vin.iii.240; Vin.iv.118, Vin.iv.151 AN.v.328f. Dhp-a.iii.342 Pv-a.73 Pv-a.145

  • -kāra (-samaya) (the time of sewing the robes Vin.iii.256f.

  • -kāla (-samaya) the right time for accepting robes Vin.iii.261 Vin.iv.286 Vin.iv.287

  • -dāna (-samaya) (the time for) giving robes Vin.iv.77 Vin.iv.99

  • -dussa clothing-material Vin.iv.279 Vin.iv.280

  • -nidāhaka putting on the c. Vin.i.284

  • -paṭiggāhaka the receiver of a robe Vin.i.283 Vin.ii.176 Vin.v.205 AN.iii.274f.

  • -paṭivisa a portion of the c. Vin.i.263 Vin.i.285, Vin.i.301

  • -palibodha an obstacle to the valid performance of the kathina ceremony arising from a set of robes being due to a particular person (a technical term of the canon law ‣See

    Vinaya Texts

    ii.149, 157, 169. It is one of the two kaṭhinassa palibodhā (c. & āvāsa˚ Vin.i.265 Vin.v.117 cp. Vin.v.178))

  • -paviveka neuter the seclusion of the robe, i.e. of a non-Buddhist with two other pavivekāni (piṇḍapāta˚ & senāsana˚) at AN.i.240

  • -bhaṅga the distribution of robes Vin.iv.284

  • -bhatta robes & a meal (given to the bh.) Vin.iii.265

  • -bhājaka one who deals out the robes Vin.i.285 Vin.ii.176 Vin v.205 AN.iii.274f. (cp. ˚paṭiggāhaka)

  • -bhisī a robe rolled up like a pillow Vin.i.287f.

  • -rajju feminine a rope for (hanging up) the robes; in the Vinaya always combined with ˚vaṁsa ‣See below

  • -lūkha (adj.) one who is poorly dressed Pp.53

  • -vaṁsa a bamboo peg for hanging up a robe (cp. ˚rajju) Vin.i.47 Vin.i.286;.Vin.ii.117 Vin.ii.121, Vin.ii.152, Vin.ii.153, Vin.ii.209, Vin.ii.222; Vin.iii.59 Ja.i.9 Dhp-a.iii.342

  • -saṅkamanīya neuter a robe that ought to be handed over (to its legal owner) Vin.iv.282 Vin.iv.283

*Sk. cīvara, prob. = cīra, applied orig. to a dress of bark