indeclinable a particle of emphasis, perhaps = eva, or = vo2 (as dative of interest). The Commentaries explain it as “nipāta,” i.e. particle. Thus at Snp.560 Snp.760.


is enclitic form of tumhe (see under tuvaṃ), i.e. to you, of you but it is generally interpreted by the C. as “nipāta, i.e. particle (of emphasis or exclamation; i.e. vo1) Thus e.g. at Pv.i.5#3 (cp. Pv-a.26).

cp. Vedic vaḥ, Av. vō, Lat. vos, Gr. υ ̓́μμε


is commonly regarded as the prefix combination vi + ava˚; (i.e. vi + o˚), but in many cases it simply represents ava˚; (= o˚) with v as euphonic (“vorschlag”), as in vonata (= onata), voloketi, vokkanti, vokiṇṇa, voropeti vosāpeti, vosāna, vossagga. In a few cases it corresponds to vi + ud˚; as in vokkamati, vocchijjati voyoga.