- the letter (or sound) y: Ja.i.430 (padasandhikara); Ja.iii.433 (vyañjana-sandhi-vasena gahita).
- the letter (or syllable) ya: Ja.v.427 (nipāta-matta). It is referred to at Vin.iv.7 as an ending implying ridiculing or insult, together with the ending -bha. The Cy. means words like dāsiya gumbiya, bālya etc. where-ya either denotes descendency or property, or stands for-ka as diminutive (i.e. (disparaging) ending. The same applies to -bha. Here at Vin.iv.7 this way of calling a person by means of adding -ya- or -bha to his name (cp. E. y in kid → kiddy etc.) is grouped with a series of other terms of insult (hīnā akkosā).
ya + kāra