- the yoke of a plough (usually) or a carriage Dhp-a.i.24 (yugaṃ gīvaṃ bādhati presses on the neck); Pv-a.127 (ratha˚); Sdhp.468 (of a carriage) Also at Snp.834 in phrase dhonena yugaṃ samāgamā which Bdhgh. (Snp-a.542) explains as “dhuta-kilesena buddhena saddhiṃ yugaggāhaṃ samāpanno,” i.e. having attained mastery together with the pure Buddha. Neumann Sn translation not exactly: “weil abgeschüttelt ist das Joch” (but dhona means “pure”). See also below ˚nangala.
- (what is yoked or fits under one yoke) a pair, couple; applied to objects, as-˚: dussa˚; a pair of robes SN.v.71.; Dhp-a.iv.11; Pv-a.53; sāṭaka˚; id Ja.i.8, Ja.i.9; Pv-a.46; vattha˚; id. Ja.iv.172
■ tapassi˚; a pair of ascetics Vv.22#10; dūta˚; a pair of messengers SN.iv.194; sāvaka˚; of disciples DN.ii.4; SN.i.155; SN.ii.191 SN.v.164; in general: purisa˚; (cattāri p- yugāni) (4) pairs of men SN.iv.272 sq. = Iti.88; in verse at Vv.44#21 and Vv.53#3 explained at Vism.219 as follows: yugaḷa-vasena paṭhamamagga-ṭṭho phala-ṭṭho ti idam ekaṃ yugaḷan ti evaṃ cattāri purisa -yugaḷāni honti. Practically the same as “aṭṭha purisa-puggalā.” Referring to “pairs of sins (so the C.) in a somewhat doubtful passage at Ja.i.374 sa mangala-dosa-vītivatto yuga-yog’ âdhigato na jātum eti; where C. explains yugā as kilesā mentioned in pairs (like kodho ca upanāho, or makkho ca paḷāso), and yoga as the 4 yojanas or yogas (oghas?), viz. kāma˚ bhava˚, diṭṭhi˚, avijjā˚
■ Also used like an adj. num in meaning “two,” e.g. yugaṃ vā nāvaṃ two boats Dpvs.i.76.
- (connected by descent) generation, an age DN.i.113 (yāva sattamā pitāmahā-yugā “back through seven generations.” Cp. DN-a.i.281: āyuppamāṇa); Kp-a.141 (id.); Ja.i.345 (purisa˚). There are also 5 ages (or stages) in the [life of the] sāsana (see Brethren, p. 339): vimutti, samādhi, sīla, suta dāna.
-anta (-vāta) (storm at) the end of an age (of men or the world), whirlwind Ja.i.26. -ādhāna putting the yoke on, harnessing MN.i.446. -ggāha “holding the yoke,” i.e. control, dominance, domineering, imperiousness; used as syn. for palāsa at Vb.357 = Pp.19 (so read for yuddha˚), explained by sama-dhura-ggahaṇaṃ “taking the leadership altogether” at Vb-a.492. See further Mnd.177; Vv-a.71 (yugaggāha-lakkhaṇo paḷāso); Snp-a.542; Dhp-a.iii.57 (˚kathā = sārambhakathā). -˚ṃ ganhāti to take the lead, to play the usurper or lord Ja.iii.259 (C. for T. palāsin); Dhp-a.iii.346 -ggāhin trying to outdo somebody else, domineering imperious Vv-a.140. -cchidda the hole of a yoke Thig.500 (in famous simile of blind turtle). -naṅgala yoke and plough (so taken by Bdhgh. at Snp-a.135) Snp.77; SN.i.172 (“plough fitted with yoke” Mrs. Rh.D.) -nandha (with variant reading -naddha, e.g. at Pts.ii.92 sq.; Kp-a.27 in T.) putting a yoke on, yoking together; as adj. congruous harmonious; as nt. congruity, association common cause Pts.ii.98 = Vism.682; Pts.ii.92 sq. (˚vagga & ˚kathā); Kp-a.27 (nt.); Vism.149 (˚dhammā things fitting under one yoke, integral parts, constituents) -mattaṃ (adv.) “only the distance of a plough,” i.e. only a little (viz. the most necessary) distance ahead with expressions of sight: pekkhati Snp.410 (“no more than a fathom’s length” Rh.D. in Early Buddhism 32) pekkhin Mil.398; ˚dassāvin Vism.19 (okkhitta-cakkhu +) pekkhamāna Snp-a.116 (as expln of okkhittacakkhu). -sāṭaka (= s
■ yuga) a pair of robes, two robes Dpvs.vi.82. Yugala & Yugala;
fr. yuj; Vedic yuga (to which also yoga) = Gr. ζυγόν; Lat. jugum = Goth. juk; Ohg. juh; E. yoke Lith. jungas