indeclinable emphatic particle

  1. in affirmative sentences: part. of assurance emphasis = for sure, very much (so), indeed, truly. Note. In connection with a dat. or an infin. the latter only apparently depend upon alaṃ, in reality they belong to the syntax of the whole sentence (as dat. or inf. absolute). It is customary however (since the practice of the Pāli grammarians) to regard them as interdependent and interpret the construction as “fit for, proper” (= yuttaṃ Pāli Com.), which meaning easily arises out of the connotation of alaṃ, e.g. alam eva kātuṃ to be sure, this is to be done = this is proper to be done. In this sense (c. dat.) it may also be compd. with Vedic araṃ c. dat

    1. (abs.) only in combn. with dat. or inf. (see c. & Note above)
    2. (˚-) see cpds
    3. with; dat. or infin.: alaṃ antarāyāya for certain an obstacle MN.i.130 (opp nâlaṃ not at all); alaṃ te vippaṭisārāya you ought to feel sorry for it Vin.ii.250; alaṃ vacanāya one says rightly SN.ii.18; alaṃ hitāya untold happiness Dhp-a.ii.41
      ■ ito ce pi so bhavaṃ Gotamo yojana sate viharati alam eva… upasankamituṃ even if he were 100 miles from here (surely) even so (i.e. it is fit or proper even then) one must go to him DN.i.117 (expld. at DN-a.i.288 by yuttam eva = it is proper); alam eva kātuṃ kalyāṇaṃ indeed one must do good = it is appropriate to do good Pv.ii.9#23 (= yuttaṃ Pv-a.122); alaṃ puññāni kātave “come, let us do meritorious works” Vv.44#15 (= yuttaṃ Vv-a.191).
  2. in negative or prohibitive sentences: part. of disapprobation reproach & warning; enough! have done with fie! stop! alas! (etc. see are)

    1. (abs.) enough: nâlaṃ thutuṃ it is not enough to praise Snp.217; te pi na honti me alaṃ they are not enough for me Pv.i.6#3
    2. with voc.: alaṃ Devadatta mā te rucci sanghabhedo “look out D. or take care D. that you do not split up the community Vin.ii.198; alaṃ Vakkali kin te iminā pūtikāyena diṭṭhena… SN.iii.120
    3. enough of (with instr.): alaṃ ettakena enough of this, so much of that Mil.18; alam me Buddhena enough for me of the Buddha = I am tired of the B. Dhp-a.ii.34.
  • -attha (adj.) “quite the thing”, truly good, very profitable useful DN.ii.231; MN.ii.69 (so read for alamatta) AN.ii.180; Thag.252; Ja.i.401 (so read for ˚atta).
  • -ariya truly genuine, right noble, honourable indeed, only in ˚ñāṇa-dassana [cp. BSk. alamārya-jñāna-darśana Lal.309 Lal.509] Vin.i.9; AN.iii.64, AN.iii.430; AN.v.88; Ja.i.389 (cp. ariya)
  • -kammaniya (quite or thoroughly) suitable Vin.iii.187
  • -pateyya: see the latter.
  • -vacanīyā (f.) a woman who has to be addressed with “alaṃ” (i.e. “fie”), which means that she ceases to be the wife of a man & returus into her parental home Vin.iii.144, cp. Vin.iii.274 (Bdhgh’s expln.).
  • -samakkhātar one who makes sufficiently clear Iti.107.
  • -sājīva one who is thoroughly fit to associate with his fellow AN.iii.81.
  • -sāṭaka “curse-coat”, one who curses his waist-coat (alaṃ sāṭaka!) because of his having eaten too much it will not fit; an over-eater; one of the 5 kinds of gluttons or improper eaters as enumerated at Dhp-a.iv.16 = Dhs-a.404.

Vedic araṃ. In meaning (1) alaṃ is the expanded continuation of Vedic araṃ, an adv. acc. of ara (adj.) suitable; fitly, aptly rightly fr. ; Cp. aṇṇava, appeti ara. In meaning (2) alaṃ is the same as are