1. inseparable prefix of separation and expansion, in original meaning of “asunder,” semantically closely related to Lat. dis- & Ger ver-. Often as base-prefix in var meanings (see below 1–⁠4), also very frequent as modifying prefix (in combn with other primary prefixes like ā ni, pa, paṭi, saṃ), where its prevailing character is one of emphasis
  2. The native grammarians define vi- either as “vividha” (i.e. our meaning 2): see Bdhgh at Snp-a.136 (viharati = vividhaṃ hitaṃ harati); and Vism.179 vividhaṃ khittaṃ = vikkhittaṃ; see also under viggaṇhati; or “prātilomya” (i.e. meaning 3) Nirukta (ed. Roth), i.3; or paraphrase it by su˚; or suṭṭhu (i.e. meaning 4): see under vimāna & vippasanna The latter meaning also in Hemacandra’s Anek’ ārtha-sangraha (ed. Calc.), 7, 15: “śreṣṭhe ’tīte nānārthe” (i.e. Nos. 4 & 2)
  3. vi˚; occurs also as distributive (repetitional) prefix in reduplication compounds (here closely resembling paṭi˚ and the negative a˚), like cuṇṇa-vicuṇṇa piecemeal, chidda-vicchidda holes upon holes, vaṭṭa-vivaṭṭa, etc.

■ Contracted forms are vy˚; (= viy˚ before vowels) and vo˚; (= vi ava); the guṇa & vriddhi form is; ve˚

II. Meanings

  1. denoting expansion, spreading out; fig. variety or detail, to be trsld by expressions with over or about (cp Lat. e-), as: ˚kampati shake about, ˚kāseti open out, ˚kirati scatter about, ˚kūjati sing out (= *upa-*nadati C), ˚carati move about (= ā-hiṇḍati), ˚churita sprinkled about, ˚jāyati bring forth, ˚tāna “spread out,” ˚tthāra *ex-*tension, *de-*tail, ˚dāleti break open, ˚dhammati whirl about, ˚dhāyaka providing, ˚pakirati strew all over, ˚pphāra pervading, ˚pphārika *ef-*fulgence, ˚bhajati *ex-*plain, ˚bhatta *dis-*tributed, ˚bhāga division, distribution ˚ravati shout out, ˚rūhana growing up, ˚rocati shine out, ˚ssajjati give out, ˚ssaṭṭha sent out, ˚ssara shouting out, ˚ssuta far-famed.
  2. denoting disturbance separation, mixing up (opp. saṃ˚), as given with “away” or “down,” or the prefixes de- and dis-, e.g. ˚kasita burst asunder, ˚kubbana change, i.e. miracle (meta-morphosis), ˚kkaya sell (“ver-kaufen”), ˚kkhambhati *de-*stroy, ˚kkhāleti wash off (= ācameti), ˚kkhepa *de-*rangement, ˚gata *dis-*appeared (used as defn of vi at Thag-a.80), ˚galita dripping down, ˚ggaha separation ˚cinati *dis-*criminate, ˚jahati *dis-*miss, ˚desa foreign country (cp. verajjaka), ˚naṭṭha destroyed, ˚nata bending down, ˚nāsa *de-*struction, ˚nicchaya dis-crimination ˚nodaka driving out, ˚pāteti to be destroyed, ˚ppalapati to talk confusedly, ˚rājeti discard as rāga, ˚rodha destruction, ˚lumpati break up, ˚vitta separated, ˚vidha mixed, ˚veka separation, ˚vāha carrying away, i.e. wedding.
  3. denoting the reverse of the simple verb or loss, difference, opposite, reverse, as expressed by un- or dis-, e.g. ˚asana *mis-*fortune, ˚kaṭika unclean ˚kappa change round, ˚kāra per-turbation, *dis-*tortion ˚kāla wrong time, ˚tatha un-truth, ˚dhūma smoke-less, ˚patti corruption, ˚parīta dubious, ˚ppaṭipanna on the wrong track, ˚bhava non-existence (or as 4 “more bhava, i.e. wealth), ˚mati doubt, ˚mānana dis-respect ˚yoga separation, ˚raja fault-less, ˚rata *abs-*taining ˚rūpa *un-*sightly, ˚vaṭa unveiled, ˚vaṇṇeti defame ˚vāda dis-pute, ˚sama uneven, ˚ssandati overflow ˚ssarita *for-*gotten, ˚siṭṭha distinguished, ˚sesa difference distinction.
  4. in intensifying sense (developed fr. 1 & 2), mostly with terms expressing; per se one or the other of shades of meanings given under 1–3; to be trsld by “away,” out, all over, “up,” or similarly (completely), e.g. ˚ākula quite confused, ˚katta cut up ˚kopeti shake up, ˚garahati scold intensely, ˚chindati cut off, ˚jita conquered altogether, ˚jjotita resplendent ˚tarati come quite through, ˚niyoga close connection ˚nivatteti turn off completely, ˚pariṇāma intense change ˚ppamutta quite released, ˚ppasanna quite purified ˚pphalita crumpled up, ˚bandhana (close) fetter, ˚ramati cease altogether, ˚sahati have sufficient strength ˚sukkha dried up, ˚suddha very bright, ˚ssamati rest fully (Ger. aus-ruhen), ˚haññati to get slain.

prefix, resting on Idg. *ṷi “two,” as connotation of duality or separation (Ger. “ent-zwei”), which is contained in viṃśati, num. for “twenty” (see vīsati) cp. Sk. viṣu apart, Gr. ι ̓́διος private (lit. separate); also Sk. u-bhau both; and *ṷidh, as in Lat. dīvido = divide A secondary (compar.) formation in Sk. vitara further farther, Goth. wipra against, Ger. wider