1. (as prep.) up to (a point), as far as, how far so far that (cp. tāva I), both temporal and local, used either with absolute form of noun or adj. (base), or nom., or abl. or acc.

    1. absolute: y. sahassa up to 1000; Pv-a.21; y. sattama up to the seventh DN.i.238.
    2. nom.: y. deva-bhava-sampatti up to the attainment of a deva existence Pv-a.167; y. satta divasā up to 7 days, as long as 7 days Pv-a.31.
    3. with abl.: y brahmalokā up to the highest heaven AN.iii.17; y mekhalā down to her girdle Pv-a.46; yāva āyu-pariyosānā up to the end of life Pv-a.200; y. ajjadivasā till the present day Mhvs.32, Mhvs.23; y. kapp’ âvasānā up to the end of the world Vism.688 (where Snp-a.5 in same passage reads acc. ˚âvasānaṃ); y. kāla-ppavedanā Ja.i.118 + Dhp-a.i.248; y. mukhasmā up to the brim Mil.238; yāva bhumm’ âvalambare hang down to the ground Pv.ii.10#2
    4. with acc. y. Bodhimaṇḍaṃ as far as the Bodhimaṇḍa Mhvs.30, Mhvs.88; y. tatiyakaṃ for the 3rd time (i.e. the last time; ascending scale! DN.i.95; y. tatiyaṃ id. Vin.iv.236 samanubhāsitabba) Snp.1116; Ja.iv.126
      ■ Freq. in phrase yāva jīvaṃ (see under compounds). Sattamāsaṃ cha pañca cattāro ti vatvā yāva temāsaṃ yāciṃsu “after having said 7, 6, 5, 4, months they begged down to 3 months” Pv-a.20
      ■ With starting-point local: pādatalato… yāvakesaggaṃ from the sole of the foot to the tip of the hair (“from tip to toe”) Dhp-a.i.70; (in modal sense:) paṭhavī-kasiṇato paṭṭhāya yāva odāta-kasiṇaṃ “from the one to the other” Vism.374. Similarly in correlation yāva-tāva (see tāva 1.) as far-so far, until-so long: y. rājā āgacchati tāva ubho ramissāma Ja.iv.190; heṭṭhā pi yāva Avīci upari yāva Akaniṭṭha-bhavanaṃ, tāva addasa Vism.392; yāva naṃ ānemi tāva idh’ eva tiṭṭha Dhp-a.iii.194.
  2. (as adv.) how, how much, to which or what extent, as great or as much (as) (cp. tāva ii.2) usually in combination yāva mahā (mahantaṃ), e.g. yāva mahantaṃ how big Pv-a.77 (= yādisaṃ of Pv.ii.1#19) Vv-a.325 = Dhp-a.i.29 (yāva mahantaṃ). Also in other combinations, like yāva dukkhā nirayā how (or as) many painful purgatories Snp.678; yāva dukkhā tiracchānayoni MN.iii.169; yāva pāpo ayaṃ Devadatto alakkhiko… “how very wicked is this D.” Vin.ii.196 Further in combination with attha(ṃ), and eva, in which cases the final d is restored, or may be regarded as euphonic. Thus yāvad-atthaṃ as far as need be, as much as you like (with imper.) Pv.iv.5#7 (khādassu y.); UbhA 504 (= yattakaṃ icchati tattakaṃ); Ja.v.338; Pv-a.217 (gaṇhāhi) Cp. Vin.iii.37 (yāvadatthaṃ katvā “pleasing herself”)
    ■ As adj. sufficient, plenty MN.i.12 (paripuṇṇa… suhita y.); Pv-a.24 (= pahūta). yāvad-eva [cp. the similar tāva-d-eva] “as much as it is (in extent)” i.e. with limitation, as far as is necessary, up to (i.e. not further or more than), ever so much, as much as you like, at least; (then:) as far as, in short, altogether indeed
    ■ The same idea as our defn is conveyed by Bdhgh’s at Snp-a.503 (on Snp.p.140) “paricched âvadhāraṇa-vacanaṃ,” and at Dhp-a.ii.73 “avadhiparicchedana”: giving a limitation, or saying up to the limit. SN.ii.276 Snp.p. 140 Dhp.72 and in stock phrase “n’eva davāya … yāvad eva imassa kāyassa ṭhitiyā …” (“in short”) ‣See passages under yātrā. The explanation of yāvad eva in this phrase as given at Dhs-a.403 runs: “āhār’ āharaṇe payojanassa pariccheda-niyamadassanaṁ,” of which the translation


    ii.512 is “so as to suffice signifies the limit of the result of taking food. Neumann’s translation at MN.i.10 is “but only.’
    Note. In the stock phrase of the Buddha’s refusal to die until his teaching has been fully proclaimed (Mahāparinibbānasutta) “among gods and men” DN.ii.106 (= DN.ii.114, DN.ii.219 DN.iii.122 AN.iv.311) “yāva-deva-manussehi suppakāsitaṁ” (translation

    Dialogues of the Buddha

    AN.ii.113: “until, in a word, it shall have been well proclaimed among men”) we are inclined to consider the reading yāva deva˚; as original and better than yāvad-eva, although Rhys Davids (

    Dialogues of the Buddha

    ii.236) is in favour of the latter being the original. Cf

    Kindred Sayings

    ii.75 n. The phrase seems to require yāva only as continuation of the preceding yāva’s; moreover the spirit of the message is for the whole of the worlds cp. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit yāvad-deva manusyebhaḥ Divy.201. It is not a restriction or special definition of meaning at this passage. But may it not be taken as a summing up “in short”? It is left doubtful. If it is = yāva, then we should expect yāva na, as in the preceding sentence if it is yāvad eva the meaning “not more than made known by men” seems out of place; in this case the meaning “at least” is preferable. A similar case of insertion of a euphonic consonant m (or is it the a-stem nt in ˚ṁ instead of ˚t as in yāvat?) we find in the phrase yāvam pi at Ja.v.508 (with Pot. tiṭṭheyya ‣See below 3 Commentary explanation by yattakaṁ kālaṁ)
    ■ The form yāvade (for yāvad eva) also occurs (like tāvade for tāvad eva) at MN.ii.207
    ■ For yad-idaṃ we find yāvañ c’ idaṃ at AN.iii.34; MN.iii.169
    ■ The latter form (yāvaṃ, as above Ja.v.508) is better to be grouped directly under yāvant where more & similar cases are given.
    ■ (as conj.) so long as, whilst, until (cp. tāva ii.3, 4; iii.); either with Fut. or Pot. or Prohibitive. E.g. ’SN.i.202 (ahu pure dhammapadesu chando y. virāgena samāgamimha translation “until I met with that Pure thing and Holy”) Ja.vi.266 (y. āmantaye); Pv-a.4 (tāva ayyo āgametu yāva ayaṃ puriso… pānīyaṃ pivissati or: “you shall wait please, until he shall drink”). Neg. yāvana not until, unless, as long as not DN.ii.106 (na paribbāyissāmi… yāva… na bhavissati); SN.i.47 (y na gādhaṃ labhati); Dhp.69 (yattakaṃ kālaṃ na… Dhp-a.ii.50).

  • -kālika (cp. tāva ii.1) “as far as the time or occasion goes,” occasional, temporary, at Vin.i.251 in foll context (cp. yāmakālika): “kappati… yāvakālikena yāmakālikaṃ na kappati, kappati yāvakālikena sattāha kālikaṃ na k. etc. with foll. yāvajīvikaṃ & the same with kappati yāma-kālikena, sattāha-kālikenana k.; kappati satt˚, yāvajīv, na k.” The reply of the Buddha is: yāvakālikena yāmakālikaṃ tadahu paṭiggahitaṃ kāle kappati vikāle na kappati (same with sattāhakālikaṃ & yāvajīvikaṃ); followed by yāmakālikena… sattāhakālikaṃ & yāvajīvikaṃ; sattāhakālikena… jāvajīvikaṃ.“
  • -jivaṃ (adv.) for the length of one’s life, life-long, all one’s life, for life (-time) Vin.i.80 Vin.ii.197; Vin.iii.23; Iti.78; Dhp.64, Dhp.284; Vism.94; Dhp-a.i.45; Pv-a.76, Pv-a.110 (= satataṃ). Cp. BSk. yāvajīva-sukhya Avs.ii.37.
  • -tajjanī (-vinīta) led only as long as kept under a threat AN.i.285 (one of the 3 parisā’s; so read with variant reading for T. yāvatajjhā˚).
  • -tatiyaka “as much as 3 times,” name of the last 4 Sanghādisesa offences because before the punishment is inflicted warning must have been given 3 times: see passage of Vin.iii.186 under yāva t-ihaṃ- tihaṃ (read as yāvat-ihaṃ, the latter = aha2 day) as many days as… ; in foll. passage: uddiṭṭhā… terasa sanghādisesā dhammā, nava patham-āpattikā cattāro yāvatatiyakā, yesaṃ bhikkhu aññataraṃ vā aññataraṃ vā āpajjitvā yāvatihaṃ jānaṃ paṭicchādeti tāvatihaṃ tena bhikkhunā akāmā parivatthabbaṃ (for as many days as he knowingly conceals his sin, for so many days…), parivuttha-parivāsena bhikkhunā uttariṃ chārattaṃ bhikkhumānattāya paṭipajjitabbaṃ Vin.iii.186.

Vedic yāvat as nt. of yāvant used as adv. in meanings 1 & 2. The final t is lost in Pāli, but restored as; d in certain combinations: see below 2
■ Cp. tāva kīva;