concentration; a concentrated, self-collected, intent state of mind and meditation which, concomitant with right living, is a necessary condition to the attainment of higher wisdom and emancipation. In the Subha-suttanta of the Dīgha (DN.i.209 sq.) samādhi-khandha (“section on concentration”) is the title otherwise given to the cittasampadā, which, in the ascending order of merit accruing from the life of a samaṇa (see Sāmaññaphala-suttanta, and cp. Dial. i.57 sq.) stands between the sīla-sampadā and the paññā-sampadā. In the Ambaṭṭha-sutta the corresponding terms are sīla, caraṇa, vijjā (DN.i.100) Thus samādhi would comprise
- the guarding of the senses (indriyesu gutta-dvāratā),
- self-possession (sati-sampajañña),
- contentment (santuṭṭhi),
- emancipation from the 5 hindrances (nīvaraṇāni)
- the 4 jhānas.
In the same way we find samādhi grouped as one of the sampadās at AN.iii.12 (sīla˚ samādhi˚, paññā˚, vimutti˚), and as samādhi-khandha (with sīla˚ & paññā˚) at DN.iii.229 (+ vimutti˚); AN.i.125 AN.ii.20; AN.iii.15; AN.v.326; Mnd.21; Cnd.p.277 (s. v. sīla) It is defined as cittassa ekaggatā MN.i.301; Dhs.15; Dhs-a.118; cp. Cpd. 89 n. 4; identified with avikkhepa Dhs.57, and with samatha Dhs.54
■ sammā˚; is one the constituents of the eightfold ariya-magga, e.g. DN.iii.277 Vb-a.120 sq
■ See further DN.ii.123 (ariya); Vin.i.97 Vin.i.104; SN.i.28; Mnd.365; Mil.337; Vism.84 sq. (with definition), Vism.289 (+ vipassanā), Vism.380 (˚vipphārā iddhi) Vb-a.91; Dhp-a.i.427; and on term in general Heiler Buddhistische Versenkung 104 sq.
Description & characterization of samādhi: Its four nimittas or signs are the four satipaṭṭhānas MN.i.301; six conditions and six hindrances AN.iii.427; other hindrances MN.iii.158. The second jhāna is born from samādhi DN.ii.186; it is a condition for attaining kusalā dhammā AN.i.115; Mil.38; conducive to insight AN.iii.19, AN.iii.24 sq., AN.iii.200; SN.iv.80; to seeing heavenly sights etc. DN.i.173; to removing mountains etc. AN.iii.311; removes the delusions of self AN.i.132 sq.; leads to Arahantship AN.ii.45 the ānantarika s. Snp.226; cetosamādhi (rapture of mind) DN.i.13; AN.ii.54; AN.iii.51; SN.iv.297; citta˚; id. Ne.16. dhammasamādhi almost identical with samatha SN.iv.350 sq
■ Two grades of samādhi distinguished viz. upacāra -s. (preparatory concentration) and appanā -s (attainment concentration) DN-a.i.217; Vism.126; Cpd. 54, 56 sq.; only the latter results in jhāna; to these a 3rd (preliminary) grade is added as khaṇika˚; (momentary at Vism.144
■ Three kinds of s. are distinguished suññata or empty, appaṇihita or aimless, and animitta or signless AN.i.299; SN.iv.360; cp. SN.iv.296; Vin.iii.93; Mil.337; Mil.333 sq.; Dhs-a.179 sq., Dhs-a.222 sq., Dhs-a.290 sq. see Yogāvacara’s Manual p. xxvii; samādhi (tayo samādhī) is savitakka savicāra, avitakka vicāramatta or avitakka avicāra DN.iii.219; Kv.570; cp. 413; Mil.337; Dhs-a.179 sq.; it is fourfold chanda-, viriya-, citta-, and vīmaṃsā-samādhi DN.ii.213; SN.v.268
■ Another fourfold division is that into hāna-bhāgiya, ṭhiti˚, visesa˚ nibbedha˚ DN.iii.277 (as “dhammā duppaṭivijjhā”).
- -indriya the faculty of concentration AN.ii.149; Dhs.15
- -khandha the section on s. see above 1.
- -ja produced by concentration DN.i.74; DN.iii.13; Vism.158.
- -parikkhāra requisite to the attainment of samādhi: either 4 (the sammappadhānas) MN.i.301; or 7: DN.ii.216; DN.iii.252; AN.iv.40.
- -bala the power of concentration AN.i.94 AN.ii.252; DN.iii.213, DN.iii.253; Dhs.28.
- -bhāvanā cultivation attainment of samādhi MN.i.301; AN.ii.44 sq. (four different kinds mentioned); iii.25 sq.; DN.iii.222; Vism.371
- -saṃvattanika conducive to concentration AN.ii.57; SN.iv.272 sq.; DN.iii.245; Dhs.1344.
- -sambojjhaṅga the s. constituent of enlightment DN.iii.106, DN.iii.226, DN.iii.252 Vism.134 = Vb-a.283 (with the eleven means of cultivating it).
fr. saṃ + ā + dhā