the letter s (sa-kāra) Snp-a.23; or the syllable sa Dhp-a.ii.6; Pv-a.280.


base of the nom. of the demonstr. pron. that, he she. The form sg. m. sa is rare (e.g. Dhp.142; Snp.89) According to Geiger (P.Gr. § 105) sa occurs in Snp.40 times but so 124 times. In later Pāli sa is almost extinct The final o of so is often changed into v before vowels and a short vowel is lengthened after this v: svājja Snp.998 = so ajja; svāhaṃ Ja.i.167 = so ahaṃ; svāyaṃ Vin.i.2 = so ayaṃ. The foll. vowel is dropped in so maṃ Iti.57 = so imaṃ
■ A form se is Māgadhism for nt. acc sg. taṃ, found e.g. at DN.ii.278, DN.ii.279; MN.ii.254, MN.ii.255, and in combination seyyathā, seyyathīdaṃ (for which taṃyathā Mil.1). An idiomatic use is that of so in meaning of “that (he or somebody),” e.g. “so vata… palipanno paraṃ palipannaṃ uddharissatī ti: n’ etaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati” MN.i.45; cp. “sā ’haṃ dhammaṃ nâssosiṃ” that I did not hear the Dh. Vv.40#5. Or in the sense of a cond. (or causal) part. “if,” or “once,” e.g. sa kho so bhikkhu… upakkileso ti iti viditvā… upakkilesaṃ pajahati “once he has recognised…” MN.i.37 Cp. ya˚; ii.2 b. On correl. use with ya˚; (yo so etc.) see *ya*˚; ii.1.

Idg. *so- (m.), *sā- (f.); nom. sg. to base *to- of the oblique cases; cp. Sk. sa (saḥ), sā; Av. hō, hā; Gr. ὁ, ἡ; Goth. sa, sō; Ags. sē “the” (= that one); pe-s = E thi-s


prefix, used as first pt. of compounds, is the sense of “with,” possessed of, having same as; e.g. sadevaka with the devas Vin.i.8; sadhammika having common faith DN.ii.273; sajāti having the same origin Ja.ii.108. Often opposed to a- and other neg. prefixes (like nir˚;). Sometimes almost pleonastical (like sa-antara)
■ Of combinations we only mention a few of those in which a vocalic initial of the 2nd pt remains uncontracted. Other examples see under their heading in alph. order. E.g. sa -antara inside Dhp-a.iii.788 (for santara Dhp.315); sa -Inda together with Indra DN.ii.261, DN.ii.274; AN.v.325 sq.; --uttara having something beyond, inferior (opp. an˚) DN.i.80; DN.ii.299 = MN.i.59; Dhs.1292, Dhs.1596; Dhs-a.50; --uttaracchada (& ˚chadana); a carpet with awnings above it DN.i.7≈; DN.ii.187 (˚ava) AN.i.181; Vin.i.192; DN-a.i.87; -udaka with water, wet Vin.i.46; -udariya born from the same womb, a brother Ja.iv.417, cp. sodariya; -uddesa with explanation Iti.99 Vism.423 (nāma-gotta-vasena sa-udd.; vaṇṇ’ādi-vasena sākāra); -upanisa together with its cause, causally associated SN.ii.30; -upavajja having a helper MN.iii.266 -upādāna showing attachment MN.ii.265; -upādisesa having the substratum of life remaining Snp.354; Iti.38 Ne.92. Opp. anupādisesa; -ummi roaring of the billows Iti.57, Iti.114
Note. sa2 & sa3 are differentiations of one and the same sa, which is originally the deictic pronoun in the function of identity & close connection See etym. under; saṃ˚.

identical with saṃ˚


(reflex. pron.) own MN.i.366; DN.ii.209; Snp.905; Ja.ii.7 Ja.iii.164, Ja.iii.323 (loc. samhi lohite), Ja.iii.402 (acc. saṃ his own viz. kinsman; C = sakaṃ janaṃ); Ja.iv.249 (saṃ bhātaraṃ) Pv.ii.12#1 = Dhp-a.iii.277 (acc. san tanuṃ); instr. sena on one’s own, by oneself Ja.v.24 (C. not quite to the point mama santakena). Often in composition, like sadesa one’s own country Dāvs i.10. Cp. saka.

Vedic sva & svayaṃ (= P. sayaṃ); Idg. *seṷo, *sṷe; cp. Av. hava & hva own; Gr. ἑός & ο ̔́ς his own; Lat. sui, suus; Goth. swēs own, sik = Ger. sich himself; etc.