adjective noun masculine
■ gen. dat. pañcannaṃ,
■ instr. abl pañcahi,
■ loc. pañcasu;
■ often used in compositional form pañca˚ (cp. Ved. pañcāra with 5 spokes RV i.16413; Gr.πεμπώβολος, Lat. quinqu-ennis etc.).
Characteristics of No. 5 in its use, with ref, to lit. & fig. application “Five” is the number of “comprehensive and yet simple” unity or a set; it is applied in all cases of a natural and handy comprehension of several items into a group, after the 5 fingers of the hand, which latter lies at the bottom of all primitive expressions of No. 5 (see also below pañc’ angulika. The word for 5 itself in its original form is identical with the word for hand *prəq cp. Lat. com˚, decem, centum etc.)
No. 5, applied
- with ref. to time: catupañcāhaṃ 4 or 5 days Ja.ii.114 (cp. quinque diebus Horace Sat i.316); maraṇaṃ tuyhaṃ oraṃ māsehi pañcahi after 5 months Vv.63#10, p. māse vasitvā DN-a.i.319 (cp. qu menses Hor. Sat. ii.3289)
- of space: ˚yojanaṭṭhāna Ja.iii.504; ˚yojan-ubbedho gajavaro Vv-a.33 ˚bhūmako pāsādo Ja.i.58 (cp. the house of Death as 5 stories high in Grimm, Mārchen No. 42 ed. Reclam)-
- of a group, set, company, etc. (cp. 5 peoples RV iii.379; vi.114; viii.92 etc.; gods x.553; priests ii.3414iii.77; leaders of the Greek ships Hom. Iliad 16, 171 ambassadors Genesis 472; quinque viri Hor. Sat. ii.555 Epist. ii.124): p. janā Ja.v.230; p. amaccā Ja.v.231; p hatthino Dhp-a.i.164; pañca nāriyo agamiṃsu Vv.32#2 p. puttāni khādāmi Pv.i.6#3
■ Note. No. 5 in this appln is not so frequent in Pāli as in older literature (Vedas e.g.); instead of the simple 5 we find more freq the higher decimals 50 and 500. See also below §§ 3, 4.
No. 15 in two forms:
■ pañcadasa (f. ˚ī the 15th day of the month Vv.15#6 = AN.i.144; Snp.402) Vv-a.67 (˚kahāpaṇa-sahassāni dāpesi), and paṇṇarasa (see [as f ī of the 15th or full-moon day Pv.iii.3#1; Dhp-a.i.198 Dhp-a.iii.92; Dhp-a.iv.202; Vv-a.314; Snp-a.78](/define/as f ī of the 15th or full-moon day Pv.iii.3#1; Dhp-a.i.198 Dhp-a.iii.92; Dhp-a.iv.202; Vv-a.314; Snp-a.78)) Snp.153 (pannaraso uposatho); Vv.64#2 (paṇṇarase va cando; explained as paṇṇarasiyaṃ Vv-a.276); Dhp-a.i.388 (of age, 15 or 16 years) DN-a.i.17 (˚bhedo Khuddaka-nikāyo); Snp-a.357 (pannarasahi bhikkhu-satehi = 1500, instead of the usual 500) Pv-a.154 (˚yojana). The appln is much the same as 5 and 50 (see below), although more rare, e.g. as measure of space: ˚yojana Dhp-a.i.17 (next in sequence to paṇṇāsa-yojana); Ja.i.315; Pv-a.154 (cp. 15 furlongs from Jerusalem to Bethany John 11, 18; 15 cubits above the mountains rose the flood Gen. 7 20).
No. 25 in two forms:
■ pañcavīsati (the usual) e.g. Dhs-a.185 sq.; Mil.289 (citta-dubbalī-karaṇā dhammā) paṇṇa-vīsati, e.g. Ja.iv.352 (nāriyo); Thig.67, and paṇṇuvīsaṃ (only at Ja.iii.138). Similarly to 15 and 25 the number 45 (pañca-cattāḷīsa) is favoured in giving distances with -yojana, e.g. at Ja.i.147 Ja.i.348 Dhp-a.i.367
■ Application: of 25: 1 time: years Ja.iii.138; Dhp-a.i.4; 2 space: miles high and wide Dhp-a.ii.64 (ahipeto); Vv-a.236 (yojanāni pharitvā pabhā).
Remarks on the use of 50 and 500 (5000). Both 50 and 500 are found in stereotyped and always recurring combinations (not in Buddhist literature alone, but all over the Ancient World), and applied to any situation indiscriminately. They have thus lost their original numerical significance and their value equals an expression like our “thousands,” cp. the use of Lat. mille and 600, also similarly many other high numerals in Pāli literature, as mentioned under respective units (4, 6, 8 e.g. in 14, 16, 18, etc.). Psychologically 500 is to be explained as “a great hand,” i.e. the 5 fingers magnified to the 2nd decade, and is equivalent to an expression like “a lot (originally “only one,” cp. casting the lot, then the one as a mass or collection), or like heaps, tons, a great many, etc.
■ Thus 50 (and 500) as the numbers of “comm-union” are especially freq. in recording a company of men, a host of servants, animals in a herd etc., wherever the single constituents form a larger (mostly impressive, important) whole, as an army, the king’s retinue, etc.
No. 50 (paññāsa; the by-form paṇṇāsa only at Dhp-a.iii.207), in foll. applns:
- of time: does not occur, but see below under 55
- of space (cp. 50 cubits the breadth of Noah’s ark Gen. 6.15; the height of the gallows (Esther 5.14, 7.9) Ja.i.359 (yojanāni); Dhp-a.iii.207 (˚hattho ubbedhena rukkho); Vism.417 (paripuṇṇa ˚yojana suriyamaṇḍala); Dhp-a.i.17 (˚yojana)
- of a company or group (cp. 50 horses RV ii.185; v.185; wives viii.1936; men at the oars Hom. Il. 2.719; 16. 170 servants Hom. Od. 7, 103, 22, 421) Ja.iii.220 (corā), Ja.v.161 (pallankā), Ja.iii.421 (dijakaññāyo); Snp.p.87; Snp-a.57 (bhikkhū)
■ Note. 55 (pañcapaññāsa) is used instead of 50 in time expressions (years) e.g. at Dhp-a.i.125; Dhp-a.ii.57; Pv-a.99, Pv-a.142; also in groups: Dhp-a.i.99 (janā)
No. 500 (pañcasata˚, pañcasatā pañcasatāni)
- of time: years (as Peta or Petī) Vv.84#34; Pv.ii.1#5; Pv-a.152 (with additional 50).
- of space: miles high Pv.iv.3#28 Ja.i.204 (˚yojana-satikā); Vism.72 (˚dhanu-satika, 500 bows in distance)
- of groups of men, servants, or a herd, etc. (cp. 500 horses RV x.9314; witnesses of the rising of Christ 1 Cor. 15–16; men armed Vergil Aen 10. 204; men as representatives Hom. Od. 3.7; 500 knights or warriors very frequently in Nibelungenlied where it is only meant to denote a “goodly company 500 or more”) Arahants Kp-a.98; Bhikkhus very frequent, e.g. DN.i.1; Vin.ii.199; Ja.i.116, Ja.i.227; Dhp-a.ii.109, Dhp-a.ii.153; Dhp-a.iii.262, Dhp-a.iii.295; Dhp-a.iv.184, Dhp-a.iv.186; Sāvakas Ja.i.95 Upāsakas Ja.ii.95; Pv-a.151; Paccekabuddhas Dhp-a.iv.201; Pv-a.76; Vighāsâdā Ja.ii.95; Dhp-a.ii.154; Sons Pv-a.75; Thieves Dhp-a.ii.204; Pv-a.54; Relatives Pv-a.179; Women-servants (parivārikā itthiyo) Pv.ii.12#6 Vv-a.69, Vv-a.78, Vv-a.187; Pv-a.152; Oxen AN.iv.41; Monkeys Ja.iii.355; Horses Vin.iii.6
■ Money etc. as present reward or fine representing a “round-sum” (cp. Nibelungen 314: horses with gold, 317: mark; dollars as reward Grimm No. 7; drachms as pay Hor. Sat. ii.743 kahāpaṇas Snp.980, Snp.982; Pv-a.273; blows with stick as fine Vin.i.247
■ Various: a caravan usually consists of 500 loaded wagons, e.g. Ja.i.101; Dhp-a.ii.79; Pv-a.100, Pv-a.112; chariots Vv-a.78; ploughs Snp.p.13. Cp SN.i.148 (vyagghī-nisā); Vin.ii.285 (ūna-pañcasatāni) Ja.ii.93 (accharā); Ja.v.75 (vāṇijā); Dhp-a.i.89 (suvaṇṇasivikā), Dhp-a.i.352 (rāja-satāni); Dhp-a.iv.182 (jāti˚) Kp-a.176 (paritta-dīpā). Also BSk. pañ’opasthāyikā-śatāni Divy.529; pañca-mātrāṇi strī-śatāni Divy.533
■ Note. When Gotama said that his “religion” would last 500 years he meant that it would last a very long time, practically for ever. The later change of 500 to 5,000 is immaterial to the meaning of the expression, it only indicates a later period (cp. 5,000 in Nibelungeniled for 500, also 5,000 men in ambush Joshua 8. 12; converted by Peter Acts 4.4; fed by Christ with 5 loaves Matthew 14. 21). Still more impressive than 500 is the expression 5 Koṭis (5 times 100,000 or 10 million), which belongs to a comparatively later period, e.g. at Dhp-a.i.62 (ariya-sāvaka-koṭiyo), Dhp-a.i.256 (˚mattā-ariyasāvakā), Dhp-a.iv.190 (p. koti-mattā ariya-sāvakā).
Typical sets of 5 in the Pali Canon. -aggaṃ first fruits of 5 (kinds), viz. khett˚, rās˚, koṭṭh˚, kumbhi˚ bhojan˚ i.e. of the standing crop, the threshing floor the granary, the pottery, the larder Snp-a.270. -aṅgā 5 gentlemanly qualities (of king or brahmin): sujāta, ajjhāyaka abhirūpa, sīlavā, paṇḍita (see anga; on another combination with anga see below). The phrase pañc’ angasamannāgata & ˚vippahīna (SN.i.99; AN.v.16) refers to the 5 nīvaraṇāni: see explained at Vism.146. -aṅgikaturiya 5 kinds of music: ātata, vitata, ātata-vitata, ghana susira. -abhiññā 5 psychic powers (see Cpd. 209) -ānantarika-kammāni 5 acts that have immediate retribution (Mil.25), either 5 of the 6 abhiṭhānas (q.v. or (usually) murder, theft, impurity, lying, intemperance (the 5 sīlas) cp. Dhs trsl. 267. -indriyāni 5 faculties, viz. saddhā, viriya, sati, samādhi, paññā (see indriya B. 15–19). ˚vidhaṃ (rāja-) kakudhabhaṇḍaṃ insignia regis viz. vāḷavījanī, uṇhīsa, khagga, chatta pādukā. -kalyāṇāni, beauty-marks: kesa˚, maṃsa˚ aṭṭhi˚, chavi˚, vaya˚. -kāmaguṇā pleasures of the 5 senses (= taggocarāni pañc’ āyatanāni gahitāni honti Snp-a.211). -gorasā 5 products of the cow: khīra, dadhi takka, navanīta, sappi. -cakkhūni, sorts of vision (of a Buddha): maṃsa˚ dibba˚ paññā˚ buddha˚ samanta˚ -taṇhā cravings, specified in 4 sets of 5 each: see Cnd.271#v. -nikāyā 5 collections (of Suttantas) in the Buddh. Canon, viz. Dīgha˚ Majjhima˚ Saṃyutta˚, Anguttara˚ Khuddaka˚, e.g. Vin.ii.287. -nīvaraṇāni or obstacles: kāmacchanda, abhijjhā-vyāpāda, thīnamiddha uddhacca-kukkucca, vicikicchā. -patiṭṭhitaṃ 5 fold prostration or veneration, viz. with forehead waist, elbows, knees, feet (Childers) in phrase -ena vandati (sometimes ˚ṃ vandati, e.g. Snp-a.78, Snp-a.267; Ja.v.502; Snp-a.267, Snp-a.271, Snp-a.293, Snp-a.328, Snp-a.436; Vv-a.6; Dhp-a.i.197; Dhp-a.iv.178, etc. -bandhana either 5 ways of binding or pinioning or 5 fold bondage Ja.iv.3 (as “ure pañcangika-bandhanaṃ” cp. kaṇṭhe pañcamehi bandhanehi bandhitvā SN.iv.201); Nda 304iii.b2 (rājā bandhāpeti andhu-bandhanena vā rajju˚, sankhalika˚, latā˚, parikkhepa˚), with which cp. Śikṣāsamucc. 165: rājñā pañcapāśakena bandhanena baddhaḥ
■ There is a diff kind of bandhana which has nothing to do with binding but which is the 5 fold ordeal (obligation: pañcavidhabandhana-kāraṇaṃ) in Niraya, and consists of the piercing of a red hot iron stake through both hands both feet and the chest; it is a sort of crucifixion. We may conjecture that this “bandhana” is a corruption of “vaddhana” (of vyadh, or viddhana?), and that the expression originally was pañcaviddhana-kāraṇa (instead of pañca-vidha-bandhana-k˚). See passages under bandhana & cp. MN.iii.182; AN.i.141; Kv.597; Snp-a.479. -balāni 5 forces: saddhā˚ viriya˚ sati samādhi˚ paññā˚ DN.ii.120; MN.ii.12; SN.iii.96; AN.iii.12 (see also bala). -bhojanāni 5 kinds of food: odāna kummāsa, sattu, maccha, maṃsa Vin.iv.176. -macchariyāni 5 kinds of selfishness: āvāsa˚ kula˚ lābha vaṇṇa˚ dhamma˚. ˚rajāni defilements: rūpa˚, sadda etc. (of the 5 senses) Mnd.505; Snp-a.574. -vaṇṇā 5 colours (see ref. for colours under pīta and others), viz nīla, pītaka, lohitaka, kaṇha, odāta (of B’s eye) Cnd.235#I.a; others with ref. to paduma-puṇḍarīka Vv-a.41; to paduma Dhp-a.iii.443; to kusumāni DN-a.i.140; Dhp-a.iv.203. ˚vaṇṇa in another meaning (fivefold) in connection with pīti (q.v.). -saṃyojanāni fetters (q.v.) -saṅgā impurities, viz. rāga, dosa, moha, māna, diṭṭhi (cp. taṇhā) Dhp-a.iv.109. -sīla the 5 moral precepts as sub-division of the 10 (see dasasīla and Nd ii.under sīla on p. 277).
Other (not detailed) passages with 5: Snp.660 (abbudāni), Snp.677 (nahutāni koṭiyo pañca); Thig.503 (˚kaṭuka = pañcakāmaguṇa-rasa Thag-a.291); Dhp-a.ii.25 (˚mahānidhi); Snp-a.39 (˚pakāra-gomaṇḍala-puṇṇabhāva). Cp. further: guṇā Mil.249; paṇṇāni Vin.i.201 (nimba˚, kuṭaja˚, paṭola˚, sulasi˚, kappāsika˚); Paṇḍu-rāja-puttā Ja.v.426; pabbagaṇṭhiyo Mil.103; pucchā Dhs-a.55; mahā -pariccāgā Dhp-a.iii.441 mahā -vilokanāni Dhp-a.i.84; vatthūni Vin.ii.196 sq. vāhanāni (of King Pajjota) Dhp-a.i.196; suddhāvāsā Dhs-a.14. In general see Vin.v.128–Vin.v.133 (var. sets of 5).
- -aṅga five (bad) qualities (see anga 3 and above 3), in phrase vippahīna free from the 5 sins DN.iii.269; Cnd.284 C; cp. BSk. pañcānga-viprahīna. Epithet of the Buddha Divy.95, Divy.264 &
- -samannāgata endowed with the 5 good qualities AN.v.15 (of senāsana, explained at Vism.122): see also above.
- -aṅgika consisting of 5 parts fivefold, in foll. combinations: ˚jhāna (viz. vitakka, vicāra pīti, sukha, cittass’ ekaggatā) Dhs.83; ˚turiya orchestra SN.i.131; Thag.398; Thag.2, Thag.139; Vv.36#4; Dhp-a.i.274, Dhp-a.i.394 ˚bandhana bond Ja.iv.3.
- -aṅgula = ˚angulika Ja.iv.153 (gandha˚); Snp-a.39 (usabhaṃ nahāpetvā bhojetvā ˚ṃ datvā mālaṃ bandhitvā).
- -aṅgulika (see ˚aka) the 5 finger-mark, palm-mark, the magic mark of the spread hand with the fingers extended (made after the hand 5 fingers have been immersed in some liquid, preferably a solution of sandal wood, gandha; but also blood) See Vogel, the 5 finger-token in Pāli Literature, Amsterdam Akademie 1919 (with plates showing ornaments on Bharhut Tope), cp. also J.P.T,S. 1884, 84 sq. It is supposed to provide magical protection (esp. against the Evil Eye). Vin.ii.123 (cp. Vin. Texts ii.116) Ja.i.166, Ja.i.192; Ja.ii.104 (gandha ˚ṃ deti), Ja.ii.256 (gandhaā applied to a cetiya); Ja.iii.23, Ja.iii.160 (lohita˚); Vv.33#18 (gandha˚ṃ adāsiṃ Kassapassa thūpasmiṃ); Mhvs.32, Mhvs.4 (see trsl p. 220); Dhp-a.iii.374 (goṇānaṃ gandha-˚āni datvā) Snp-a.137 (setamālāhi sabba-gandha-sugandhehi p˚akehi ca alankatā paripuṇṇa-angapaccangā, of oxen). Cp Mvu.i.269 (stūpeṣu pañcangulāni; see note on p 579). Quotations of similar use in brahmanical literature see at Vogel p. 6 sq.
- -āvudha (āyudha) set of 5 weapons (sword, spear, bow, battle-axe, shield, after Childers) Mil.339 (see Mil trsl. ii.227), cp. p˚ sannaddha Ja.iii.436, Ja.iii.467; Ja.iv.283, Ja.iv.437; Ja.v.431; Ja.vi.75 sannaddha-p˚ Ja.iv.160 (of sailors). They seem to be different ones at diff. passages.
- -āhaṃ 5 days Vin.iv.281; Ja.ii.114.
- -cūḷaka with 5 topknots Ja.v.250 (of a boy).
- -nakha with 5 claws, Name of a five-toed animal Ja.v.489 (so read for pañca na khā, misunderstood by C.).
- -paṭṭhika at Vin.ii.117, Vin.ii.121, Vin.ii.152; is not clear (variant reading paṭika). Vin. Texts iii.97 trsl. “cupboards” and connect it with Sk. paṭṭikā, as celapattikaṃ Vin.ii.128 undoubtedly is (“strip of cloth laid down for ceremonial purposes,” trsl. iii.128). It also occurs at Vin.iv.47
- -patikā (f.) having had 5 husbands Ja.v.424, Ja.v.427.
- -mālin of a wild animal Ja.vi.497 (= pancangika-turiya-saddo viya C., not clear).
- -māsakamattaṃ a sum of 5 māsakas Dhp-a.ii.29.
- -vaggiya (or ˚ika Snp-a.198) belonging to a group of five. The 5 brahmins who accompanied Gotama when he became an ascetic are called p. bhikkhū Their names are Aññākondañña, Bhaddiya Vappa, Assaji, Mahānāma. MN.i.170; MN.ii.94; SN.iii.66; Pv-a.21 (˚e ādiṃ katvā); Snp-a.351; cp. chabbaggiya
- -vidha fivefold Ja.i.204 (˚ā abhirakkhā); Ja.vi.341 (˚paduma), ˚bandhana: see this.
- -sādhāraṇa-bhāva fivefold connection Ja.iv.7.
- -seṭṭha (Bhagavā) “the most excellent in the five” Snp.355 (= pañcannaṃ paṭhamasissānaṃ pañcavaggiyānaṃ seṭṭho, pañcahi vā saddhādīhi indriyehi sīlādīhi vā dhamma-khandhehi ativisiṭṭhehi cakkhūhi ca seṭṭho Snp-a.351).
- -hattha having 5 hands Ja.v.431.
Ved. pañca, Idg. *penqṷe; cp. Gr. πέντε, Lat. quīnque, Goth. fimf, Lith. penki, Oir. coic number 5