base of demonstr. pron. for nt., in oblique cases of m. & f., in demonstr. adv. of place & time (see also sa).

I. Cases: nom

sg. nt. tad (older) Vin.i.83; Snp.1052; Dhp.326; Mil.25 & taṃ (cp. yaṃ, kiṃ) Snp.1037, Snp.1050; Ja.iii.26; acc. m. taṃ Ja.ii.158, f. taṃ Ja.vi.368; gen. tassa f. tassā (Snp.22, Snp.110; Ja.i.151); instr. tena, f. tāya (Ja.iii.188); abl. tasmā (Ja.i.167); tamhā Snp.291, Snp.1138 (Ja.iii.26) & tato (usually as adv.) (Snp.390); loc. tasmiṃ (Ja.i.278), tamhi (Dhp.117); tahiṃ (adv.) (Pv.i.5#7) tahaṃ (adv.) (Ja.i.384; Vv-a.36); pl. nom. m. te (Ja.ii.129), f. tā (Ja.ii.127), nt. tāni (Snp.669, Snp.845); gen. tesaṃ, f. tāsaṃ (Snp.916); instr. tehi, f. tāhi (Ja.ii.128) loc. tesu, f. tāsu (Snp.670)
■ In composition (Sandhi both tad- & taṃ-are used with consecutive phonetic changes (assimilation), viz.

  1. tad˚:

    1. in subst function: tadagge henceforth DN.i.93 taduṭṭhāya Dhp-a.iii.344; tadūpiya (cp. Trenckner, Notes 77, 78 = tadopya (see discussion under opeti), but cp. Sk. tadrūpa Divy.543 & tatrupāya. It is simply tad-upa-ka, the adj. positive of upa, of which the compar—superlative is upama, meaning like this, i.e. of this or the same kind Also spelt tadūpikā (f.) (at Ja.ii.160) agreeing with, agreeable pleasant Mil.9; tadatthaṃ to such purpose Snp-a.565
      ■ With assimilation: taccarita; tapparāyaṇa Snp.1114; tappoṇa (= tad-pra-ava-nata) see taccarita tabbisaya (various) Pv-a.73; tabbiparīta (different Vism.290; Dhp-a.iii.275; tabbiparītatāya in contrast to that Vism.450
    2. as crude form (not nt.) originally only in acc. (nt.) in adj. function like tad-ahan this day then felt as euphonic d, esp. in forms where similarly the euphonic t is used (ajja-t-agge). Hence ta- is abstracted as a crude (adverbial) form used like any other root in composition. Thus: tad-ah-uposathe on this day’s fast-day = to-day (or that day) being Sunday DN.i.47; Snp.p.139 (explained as tam-ah-uposathe, uposatha-divase ti at Snp-a.502); tadahe on the same day Pv-a.46; tadahū (id.) Ja.v.215 (= tasmiṃ chaṇa-divase) tad-aṅga for certain, surely, categorical (orig. concerning this cp. kimanga), in tadanga-nibbuta SN.iii.43 tadaṅga-samatikkama Cnd.203; tadaṅga-vikkhambhana-samuccheda Vism.410; tadaṅga-pahāna Dhs-a.351; Snp-a.8; tadangena AN.iv.411
  2. tan˚:

    1. as subst.: tammaya (equal to this, up to this) Snp.846 (= tapparāyana Cnd.206); AN.i.150
    2. Derived from acc. use (like a β) as adj. is tankhaṇikā (fr. taṃ khaṇaṃ Vin.iii.140 (= muhuttikā)
    3. a reduced form of taṃ is to be found as ta˚ in the same origin & application as ta-d-(under a β) in combination ta-y-idaṃ (for taṃidaṃ → taṃ-idaṃ → ta-idaṃ → ta-y-idaṃ) where y. takes the place of the euphonic consonant. Cp. in application also Gr. τοϋτο & ταϋτα, used adverbially as therefore (orig. just that) Snp.1077; Pv.i.3#3; Pv-a.2, Pv-a.16 (= taṃ idaṃ), Pv-a.76. The same ta˚ is to be seen in tāhaṃ Vv.83#15 (= taṃ-ahaṃ), & not to be confused with tāhaṃ = te ahaṃ (see tvaṃ)
      ■ A similar combn is taṃyathā Mil.1 (this is how, thus, as follows) which is the Sk. form for the usual P. seyyathā (instead of ta-(y)-yathā, like ta-y-idaṃ); cp. Trenckner, P.M. p. 75
      ■ A sporadic form for tad is tadaṃ Snp.p.147 (even that, just that for tathaṃ?)

II. Application

  1. ta˚: refers or points back to somebody or something just mentioned or under discussion (like Gr. οὑτος, Lat. hic, Fr. ci in voici cet homme-ci, etc.): this, that, just this (or that), even this (or these). In this sense combined with api: te c’ âpi (even these) Snp.1058. It is also used to indicate something immediately following the statement of the speaker (cp. Gr. ο ̔́δε, E. thus): this now, esp. in adv. use (see below); taṃ kiṃ maññasi DN.i.60; yam etaṃ pañhaṃ apucchi Ajita taṃ vadāmi te: Snp.1037; taṃ te pavakkhāmi (this now shall I tell you:) Snp.1050; tesaṃ Buddho vyākāsi (to those just mentioned answered B.) Snp.1127; te tositā (and they, pleased…) ib. Snp.1128.

  2. Correlative use:

    1. in rel. sentences with ya˚ (preceding ta˚): yaṃ ahaṃ jānāmi taṃ tvaṃ jānāsi “what I know (that) you know” DN.i.88; yo nerayikānaṃ sattānaṃ āhāro tena so yāpeti “he lives on that food which is (characteristic of the beings in N.; or: whichever is the food of the N. beings, on this he lives” Pv-a.27
    2. elliptical (with omission of the verb to be) yaṃ taṃ = that which (there is), what (is), whatever, used like an adj.; ye te those who, i.e. all (these), whatever: ye pana te manussā saddhā… te evam ahaṃsu… “all those people who were full of faith said” Vin.ii.195; yena tena upāyena gaṇha “catch him by whatever means (you like),” i.e. by all means Ja.ii.159; yaṃ taṃ kayirā “whatever he may do” Dhp.42.
  3. Distributive and iterative use (cp. Lat. quisquis, etc.):…

    1. taṃ taṃ this & that, i.e. each one; yaṃ yaṃ passati taṃ taṃ pucchati whomsoever he sees (each one) he asks Pv-a.38; yaṃ yaṃ manaso piyaṃ taṃ taṃ gahetvā whatever… (all) that Pv-a.77; yo yo yaṃ yaṃ icchati tassa tassa taṃ taṃ adāsi “whatever anybody wished he gave to him” Pv-a.113. So with adv. of ta˚: tattha tattha here & there (freq.); tahaṃ tahaṃ id. Ja.i.384; Vv-a.36 Vv-a.187; tato tato Snp.390
    2. the same in disjunctive/comparative sense: taṃ… taṃ is this so & is this so (too) = the same as, viz. taṃ jīvaṃ taṃ sarīraṃ is the soul the same as the body (opp. aññaṃ j. a. s.) AN.v.193, etc (see jīva).
  4. Adverbial use of some cases (locala temporalb, & modalc):
    ■ acc. taṃ (a) there (to): tad avasari he withdrew there DN.ii.126, DN.ii.156; (b) taṃ enaṃ at once, presently (= tāvad-eva) Vin.i.127 (cp. Ved enā); (c) therefore (cp. kiṃ wherefore, why), that is why, now, then: SN.ii.17; MN.i.487; Snp.1110; Pv.i.2#3 (= tasmā Pv-a.11 & Pv-a.103); Pv.ii.7#16; cp. taṃ kissa hetu Nd ii.on jhāna
    ■ gen. tassa (c) therefore AN.iv.333.
    ■ instr. tena (a) there (direction = there to), always in correl. with yena: where-there, or in whatever direction here & there. Freq. in formula denoting approach to a place (often unnecessary to translate); e.g. yena Jīvakassa ambavanaṃ tena pāyāsi: where the Mangogrove of J. was, there he went = he went to the M. of J. DN.i.49; yena Gotamo ten’ upasankama go where G is DN.i.88; yena āvasathâgāraṃ ten’ upasankami DN.ii.85 etc.; yena vā tena vā palāyanti they run here there AN.ii.33; (c) so then, now then, therefore, thus (often with hi) Ja.i.151, Ja.i.279; Pv-a.60; Mil.23; tena hi DN.ii.2; Ja.i.266; Ja.iii.188; Mil.19
    ■ abl. tasmā (c) out of this reason, therefore Snp.1051, Snp.1104; Cnd.279 (= taṃ kāraṇaṃ); Pv-a.11, Pv-a.103; tato (a) from there, thence Pv.i.12#3; (b) then, hereafter Pv-a.39
    ■ loc. tahiṃ (a) there (over there → beyond) Pv.i.5#7; (c) = therefore Pv-a.25; tahaṃ (a) there; usually repeated: see above II. 3 (a)
    ■ See also tattha, tathā, tadā, tādi, etc.

Vedic tad, etc.; Gr. τόν τήν τό; Lat. is-te, tālis, etc.; Lith. tás tā; Goth. pata; Ohg. etc. daz; E. that