indeclinable again. There are several forms of this adv., but puna has to be considered as the orig. Pali form. The form puno is doubtful; if authentic, a Sanskritisation; only found at Thag-a.71 (Tha-ap.38; variant reading puna) & Tha-ap.72 (Tha-ap.41, variant reading puna). The sandhi; r is preserved only in metre and in compn.. That it is out of fashion even in metre is shown by a form punā where ā is the regular metrical lengthening instead of ar (Ja.iii.437: na hi dāni punā atthi; variant reading puna). Besides this the r is apparent in the doubling of the first consonants of compounds (punappunaṃ, punabbhava); it is quite lost in the enclitic form pana
■ We find r in punar āgami Snp.339; punar āgato Ja.i.403 (= puna āgato Ja.i.403 (= puna āgato, ra-kāro sandhivasena vutto C.); in compounds: punar- abhiseka see J.P.T.S. 1885 49; a-punar -āvattitā the fact of not turning back Mil.276 (cp. Prk. apuṇar-avatti Pischel, § 343). Otherwise r stands on the same level as other sandhi (euphonic) consonants (like m. & d., see below), as in; puna-r-eva Dhp.338; Pv.ii.8#7; Pv.ii.11#6. We have m in puna-m-upāgamuṃ Snp.306; puna by itself is rarely found, it is usually combined with other emphatic part like eva and api. The meaning is “again,” but in enclitic function (puna still found Snp.677, Snp.876, otherwise pana); it represents “however, but, now” (cp same relation in Ger. abermals: aber), similar to the development in Prk. puṇo vi & puṇar avi “again” puna “now” (Pischel Gr. § 342)
puna by itself at Snp-a.597; Pv-a.3, Pv-a.45; Mhvs.14, Mhvs.12. doubled as punappunaṃ SN.i.174; Thag.531, Thag.532; Snp.728, Snp.1051; Dhp.117 Dhp.118, Dhp.325, Dhp.337; Ja.v.208; Snp-a.107; Pv-a.45, Pv-a.47; punappuna at Dhp-a.ii.75; as puna-d-eva at DN.i.60, DN.i.142; Pv.ii.11#3 (variant reading); Vism.163; Dhp-a.ii.76; puna-m-eva Pv.ii.11#3; puna pi once more Ja.i.279; Pv-a.67, Pv-a.74 puna-p-pi Ja.v.208. The phrase puna c’ aparaṃ “and again something else” stands on the same level as the phrase aparo pi (apare pi), with which one may compare the parallel expressions puna-divase: aparadivase all of which show the close relation between pi puna, apara, but we never find para in these connections Trenckner’s (& following him Oldenberg in Vin and Hardy in A etc.) way of writing; puna ca paraṃ (e.g. Mil.201, Mil.388, Mil.418 etc.) is to be corrected to puna c’ aparaṃ, cp. punâpara Snp.1004; Cp.iii.6#1.

  • -āgamana coming again, return SN.i.22 (a˚).
  • -āvāsa rebirth SN.i.200.
  • -divase on the following day Ja.i.278; Pv-a.19, Pv-a.38.
  • -nivattati to turn back again SN.i.177
  • -bbhava renewed existence, new birth DN.ii.15; SN.i.133; Iti.62; SN.iv.201 (āyati˚); Snp.162, Snp.273, Snp.502, Snp.514, Snp.733 Cnd. s.v.; Ne.28, Ne.79 sq.; Pv-a.63, Pv-a.200; cp. ponobhavika; ; no more rebirth SN.i.174, SN.i.208; Cnd.64;
  • -ābhinibbatti birth in a new existence MN.i.294; SN.ii.65; AN.i.223; Vin.iii.3; Pv-a.35.
  • -vacana repetition Snp-a.487.
  • -vāre (loc.) another time Ja.v.21.

cp. Vedic punar, punaḥ, to base *pŭ (related to *apo: see apa), as in puccha tail, Lat puppis, poop, Gr. πύματος the last; orig. meaning “behind”