I. Forms

(See inflection also at Geiger, P.Gr. § 110.) The decl. is similar to that of ta˚ among the more rarely found forms we only mention the foll.
■ sg. nom. m. yo with by-form (in hiatus) yv- as yv’āyaṃ = yo ayaṃ MN.i.258; yv’āssa = yo assa MN.i.137 Notice the lengthening of the subsequent vowel. An unsettled ya is to be found at Ja.v.424 (Fausböll remarks “for yassā”?; perhaps to be combined with preceding pañcapatikā; C. on p. 427 explains ya-kāro nipātamatto)
■ abl. yasmā in adv. use; yamhā Dhp.392
■ loc. yamhi Dhp.261, Dhp.372, Dhp.393
■ f. loc. yassaṃ AN.iii.151 (see below). See further adv. use of cases (below ii.5)
■ At Pv.ii.1#6 yāhi is doubtful (perhaps imper. = yajahi, of yajati; C. leaves it unexplained).

Special mention must be made of the nt. n. acc. sg. where both yaṃ and yad are found. The (Vedic) form yad (Ved. yat) has been felt more like ya + expletive (Sandhi-) d, and is principally found in adv. use and certain archaic phrases, whereas yaṃ represents the usual (Pali) form (like tad and taṃ). See more under II
■ A Māgadhized form is ye (after se = taṃ), found at DN.ii.278 (see Geiger § 1052 & 1102. Cp. Trenckner Notes 75.). The expression ye-bhuyyena may belong under this category, if we explain it as yad + bhuyyena (bhuyyena equivalent to bhiyyoso). It would then correspond to seyyathā (= sad + yathā, cp. sayathā sace, taṃyathā). See refs. under yebhuyyena
■ The expression yevāpanaka is an adj. formn from the phrase ye-vā-pana (= yaṃ vā pana “whatever else there is”) i.e. belonging to something of the same kind, i.e. corresponding, reciprocal, as far as concerned, respective (See s. v.)-In adv. use it often corresponds to E. as; see e.g. yad-icchakaṃ, yad-idaṃ (under ii.2 b ii.4 b.).

II. Meaning

“which,” in correspondence to a following demonstr. pron. (ta˚); whichever (generalizing); nt. what, whatever. In immediate combination with the demonstr. pron. it is qualifying and specifying the person, thing or subject in discussion or question (see below 4).

  1. Regular use as correl. pron., when ya˚; (+ noun) is followed by ta˚; (+ noun). Sometimes (in poetry) the reverse is the case, e.g. at Iti.84 where ta˚; (m. sa) is elliptically omitted: atthaṃ na jānāti yaṃ lobho sahate naraṃ “he does not know good, whom greed overcomes
    ■ Otherwise regular, e.g. : yassa jātarūparajataṃ kappati pañca pi tassa kāmaguṇā kappanti SN.iv.326 In a generalizing sense (cp. below ii.3): yo so “der erste beste,” some or other, whoever, any Ja.iv.38 Ja.v.362; yaṃ vā taṃ vā karotu let her do whatever she likes Vv-a.208; yasmiṃ vā tasmiṃ vā on every occasion SN.i.160 na yoso vā yakkho not this or that yakkha i.e. not any (ordinary) kind of Yakkha (but Inda DN-a.i.264
    ■ The same use (ordinary correlative) applies to the nt. forms yaṃ & yad; in correl. to taṃ and tad (See sep. under II. 2.)

  2. Use of nt. forms.

    1. nt. yaṃ

      1. as pronoun SN.iii.44 (yaṃ dukkhaṃ… tad anattā); Iti.78 (yañ c’ aññaṃ whatever else); Vb-a.54 (yaṃ labbhati yañ ca na labbhati taṃ sabbaṃ pucchitvā). See also under 3 a (yaṃ kiñci, yaṃ yaṃ)
      2. as adj. adv.: yaṃmukha facing what, turned where (?) Ja.v.475 (but C reads & explains sammukha!); yaṃ-vipāka having what or which kind of fruit DN.ii.209. yaṃ vā… yaṃ vā whether… or SN.ii.179; yaṃ no… na tv’ eva neither… nor SN.ii.179–⁠SN.ii.180
        yaṃ with pot.: “so that,” that (corresp. to Lat. ut consecutivum) SN.iii.41 (yaṃ rūpe anatt’ ânupassī vihareyya). Ja.v.339 (n’ esa dhammo yaṃ taṃ jahe that I should leave you)
        ■ In the function of other conjunctions e.g. as temporal when, since, after: Ja.iv.319 (yaṃ maṃ Suruci-m-ānayi that, or since, S. married me). As conditional or causal = if, even if, because: Vin.i.276 (yaṃ te sakkā… arogaṃ kātuṃ, taṃ karohi if it is possible… do it; or may be taken in sense of “in whatever way you can do it, do”); Ja.iii.206 = Ja.iv.4 (yaṃ me sirasmiṃ ūhacca cakkaṃ bhamati matthake = because; C.: yena pāpena)
      3. as adv. deictive “so,” in combination with var other (emphatic) particles as e.g. yaṃ nūna used in an exhortative sense “well, now”; or “rather, let me” or “so now,” always in phrase yaṃ nūn’ āhaṃ “now then let me” (do this or that) very freq., either with foll. pot., e.g. “y. n. âhaṃ araññaṃ paviseyyaṃ Dhp-a.ii.91. “y. n. â. katakammaṃ puccheyyaṃ Vv-a.132; dasseyyaṃ Vv-a.138; pabbajjeyyaṃ MN.ii.55 āneyyaṃ Dhp-a.i.46, vihareyyaṃ ibid. 56; etc. cp. Ja.i.14 Ja.i.150, Ja.i.255; Ja.iii.393; Dhp-a.i.91; Pv-a.5 (avassayo bhaveyyaṃ)
        ■ Similarly yañ hi “well then, now then (with Pot.) SN.ii.210, SN.ii.221 (taṃ vadeyya). Cp. yagghe yañ ca & yañ ce; ca* & cp. sace = sa + ce] (rather) than that: yañ ca Thig.80; Ja.i.210; yañce (with Pot.) SN.i.176; Iti.43; Thag.666 sangāme me mataṃ seyyo yañ ce jīve parājito (than that I live vanquished) Snp.440 (cp. the intricate expln at Snp-a.390); similarly Ja.iv.495: me maraṇaṃ seyyo yañ ce jīve tayā vinā
    2. nt. yad:

      1. as pron in regular relative use e.g. SN.iii.44 (yad aniccaṃ taṃ dukkhaṃ); Iti.59 (yad eva diṭṭhaṃ tad ev’ âhaṃ vadāmi).
      2. as adv., e.g. yad-agge (loc.) from what on, i.e. from which time, since what time DN.i.152 (= mūladivasato paṭṭhāya yaṃ divasaṃ aggaṃ patvā DN-a.i.311); Vv.84#33 (= yato paṭṭhāya Vv-a.344) Also as yad-aggena (instr.) Vin.ii.257 (y. Mahāpajāpati-gotamiyā aṭṭha garudhammā paṭiggahitā tad eva sā upasampannā); Vb-a.387
        yad-atthaṃ for what, why Thig.163. yad-atthiya as much as necessary, as required, sufficient, proper Thag.12 Thag.1274 (“which, for the goal desirous, he led” trsl. refers to brahmacariyaṃ). The same verse occurs at Snp.354. The latter passage is mentioned in P.D under atthiya with meaning “on account of what (cp. kim-atthiyaṃ SN.iii.189). The Snp p.ssage is not explained in Snp-a
        yad-icchakaṃ whatever is pleasant i.e. according to liking, as he pleases AN.iii.28; Pp.11 Pp.12; Ja.i.141 (y. bhutta eaten heartily); Vism.154 (+ yavadicchaka); Vv-a.341. Cp. yen’ icchakaṃ below II. 5- yad-icchita see under yathā-icchita! -yadidaṃ: see below II. 4 b.
  3. Generalizing (or distributive) use of ya: There are two modes of generalization, viz.

    1. by repeating ya˚; yassa yass’ eva sālassa mūle tiṭṭhasi, so so muñcati pupphāni; “at the foot of whichever tree you stand he (in all cases concerned) sheds flowers” Vv.39#3; yaṃ yaṃ hi manaso piyaṃ “whatever is pleasant to the senses” Pv.ii.1#18; yaṃ yaṃ passati taṃ taṃ pucchati “whomsoever he sees, him he asks” Ja.iii.155; yassaṃ yassaṃ disāyaṃ viharati, sakasmiṃ yeva vijite viharati“ in whichever region he lives, he lives in his own realm“ AN.iii.151; yo yo yaṃ yaṃ icchati tassa tassa adāsi “whatever anybody wished he gave to him Pv-a.113; yaṃ yaṃ padesaṃ bhajati tattha tatth’ eva assa lābhasakkāro nibbattati “whichever region he visits, there (in each) will he have success” Dhp-a.ii.82-
    2. by combination with ko-ci (cp. the identical Lat qui-cun-que): yassa kassaci rāgo pahīno ayaṃ vuccati… “the lust of whosoever is abandoned he is called so & so” Iti.56. yāni kānici vatthūni… sabbāni tāni… Iti.19; ye keci ārabbha “with ref. to whosoever” Pv-a.17; yaṃ kiñci whatever Pv.i.4#1.
  4. Dependent & elliptic; use of ya (with pron demonstr.). This represents a sort of deictic (emphatic) use, with ref. to what is coming next or what forms the necessary compliment to what is just being said. Thus it introduces a general truth or definition as we would say “just this, namely, i.e.,” or Ger. “so wie, und zwar.”-

    1. The usual combinations are those of ya + sa (nt. taṃ) and of ya + ayaṃ (nt. idaṃ), but such with amu (nt. aduṃ) also occur: yaṃ aduṃ khettaṃ aggaṃ evam eva mayhaṃ bhikkhu-bhikkhuniyo “as there is one field which is the best, thus to me the bh & bhikkhunīs” SN.iv.315. Cp. the foll.: ya + sa e.g. at MN.i.366 (yo so puriso paṭhamaṃ rukkhaṃ ārūḷho sace so na khippam eva oroheyya “just that man, who climbed up the tree first, if he does not come down very quickly”); Ja.ii.159 (yena tena upāyena with every possible means); Pv.i.9#1 (yā tā yadidaṃ* lit. “as that,” which is this (i.e. the following) may be translated by “viz.,” that is, “i.e.” in other words, so to speak, just this, “I mean”; e.g. kāmānaṃ etaṃ nissaraṇaṃ yad idaṃ nekkhammaṃ “there is an escape from the lusts, viz. lustlessness”; or: “this is the abandoning of lusts, in other words lustlessness Iti.61; dve dānāni āmisa˚ dhamm˚, etad aggaṃ imesaṃ yad idaṃ dhamma˚ “this is the best of them, I mean dh-d.” Iti.98 = Iti.100; supaṭipanno sāvaka-sangho, y. i cattāri purisa-yugāni etc. MN.i.37. Instead of yadidaṃ we also find yāvañ c’ idaṃ. See also examples given under yāvatā.
  5. Cases used adverbially: Either locally or modally with regards to the local adverbs it is to be remarked that their connotation is fluctuating, inasmuch as direction and place (where) are not always distinguished (cp. E. where both meanings = where & where-to), but must be guessed from the context.
    ■ instr.; yena: (local where (i.e. at which place) DN.i.71 (yena yena wherever), DN.i.220 (yattha yena yahiṃ = whence, where, whither; not with translation Dial. I. 281: where, why, whence!), DN.i.238 (id.) yenatena where (he was)-there (he went) DN.i.88, DN.i.106 DN.i.112 & passim; cp. DN.ii.85 (yena âvasath’ âgāraṃ ten upasankami); AN.ii.33 (yena vā tena vā here & there or “hither & thither”)
    ■ (modal) Dhp.326 (yen’ icchakaṃ ii. 2 b.); Pv.i.11#2 (kiṃ akattha pāpaṃ yena pivātha lohitaṃ: so that)
    ■ loc. yahiṃ where (or whither) Vv.84#29 (yahiṃ yahiṃ gacchati tahiṃ tahiṃ modati); & yasmiṃ yasmiṃ vā tasmiṃ vā on every occasion SN.i.160
    ■ abl yasmā (only modal) because AN.i.260; Iti.37 (corresp. to tasmā). On yasmā-t-iha see Geiger,

    Pali Grammar

    § 73#5.

pron. rel. base; Vedic yaḥ = Gr. ο ̔́ς who; cp. Goth. jabai if, -ei rel. part. An amplification of the dem pron. base *i-, *ei-(cp. ayaṃ). See on detail Brugmann “Die indogerm. Pronomina” in Ber. d. sächs Ges. LX. 41 sq.